Diana Torrieri

Diana Torrieri, pseudonimo di Angela Torrieri (Canosa di Puglia, 13 agosto 1913 – Roma, 26 marzo 2007), è stata un’attrice italiana.
Fu eminentemente attrice teatrale e radiofonica, mentre nel cinema apparve solo in quattro pellicole.

Diana Torrieri iniziò la sua attività di attrice nei primi anni ’30 nella Compagnia di Paola Borboni, con la quale intraprese una lunga tournée negli Stati Uniti

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Negli anni seguenti lavorò nelle Compagnie di Anton Giulio Bragaglia e Memo Benassi.
Durante la guerra nel 1943, fece parte del Partito d’Azione svolgendo l’attività di staffetta, rimanendo anche ferita durante la Liberazione di Milano, proprio mentre si trovava nei pressi del Piccolo Teatro, dove lavorava ad uno spettacolo.
Nel dopoguerra, sopravvissuta ad un tentativo di suicidio nel 1949, ripresee la sua attività, lavorando in opere classiche e moderne con Vittorio Gassman e con Tino Carraro sino all’abbandono delle scene negli anni 80.
Nel 1991 le venne concesso un vitalizio previsto dalla Legge Bacchelli.
Morì nel 2007 all’età di 93 anni.
Nell’estate del 1968 fu inviata dalla Rai (Radio2) per un reportage in Brasile; durante il viaggio sulla nave Augustus ebbe modo di conoscere, intervistare e registrare dal vivo due personalità della musica brasiliana come Vinicius De Moraes e Dorival Caymmi.

Dracoraptor

Dracoraptor is a genus of carnivorous neotheropod dinosaur from the Hettangian age of the Early Jurassic period of Wales.

The Dracoraptor fossils were discovered in 2014 and 2015 near the Welsh town of Penarth. In March 2014, brothers and amateur paleontologists Nick and Rob Hanigan, while searching for ichthyosaur remains at Lavernock Point, the large cape south of Cardiff, found stone plates containing dinosaur fossils, fallen off the seven metres high cliff face. Judith Adams and Philip Manning of the University of Manchester made X-ray pictures and CAT-scans of the fossils. The remains were donated to the Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales. They were prepared by Craig Chivers en Gary Blackwell. On 20 July 2015, student Sam Davies found additional plates with foot bones.
The type species, Dracoraptor hanigani, was named and described in 2016 by David M. Martill, Steven U. Vidovic, Cindy Howells, and John R. Nudds. The generic name combines the Latin draco, “dragon”, a reference to the Welsh Dragon, with raptor, “robber”, a usual suffix in the names of theropods. The genus name was suggested by the Hanigan brothers. The specific name honours Nick and Rob Hanigan as discoverers although to be grammatically correct it should be haniganorum.
The holotype, NMW 2015.5G.1–2015.5G.11, was discovered in the lower Bull Cliff Member of the Blue Lias Formation in the United Kingdom. More precisely, it came from a layer just meters below the first occurrence of Jurassic ammonite Psiloceras and above the Paper Shales that represent the lithological Triassic-Jurassic boundary, precisely dating the dinosaur to the earliest Hettangian, 201.3 million years ago ± 0

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The holotype consists of a partial skeleton with skull. It contains both praemaxillae, both maxillae, teeth, a lacrimal, a jugal, a postorbital, een squamosal, a supraoccipital, parts of the lower jaws, a possible hyoid, two neck vertebrae, neck ribs, rear back vertebrae, at least five front tail vertebrae, chevrons, ribs, belly ribs, the lower parts of a left forelimb, a furcula, both pubic bones, a left ischium, a right thighbone, a shinbone, the upper part of a calf bone, a left astragalus, three tarsals and three metatarsals. About 40% of the skeletal elements is presented. Some bones have been preserved as natural moulds. The specimen in 2016 represented the most complete Mesozoic theropod known from Wales.
Dracoraptor was a biped, much like its relatives. The fossil discovered in Wales is a 7-foot-long (2.1 metre) juvenile with a hip height of seventy centimetres; adults may have been ten feet (three meters) long.
In 2016, some distinguishing traits were established. The praemaxilla carries only three teeth, a basal trait. The jugal has a thin front branch running to the maxilla. The bony external nostril is large and has a thin branch beneath it. The pubic bone is obliquely directed to the front and is considerably longer than the ischium. The fourth tarsal has a process at the upper side.
In the front of the snout each praemaxilla embraces the front of a very large nostril. The skull bears three premaxillary teeth per side and at least seven maxillary teeth. The teeth are recurved or dagger-shaped. The edges of the tooth crown are serrated with six to eight denticles per millimetre. On the trailing edge these serrations run all the way to the root, on the leading edge they end at a higher position. Towards the tip of the tooth, these denticles become gradually somewhat smaller. The maxilla borders an antorbital fenestra with a shallow depression. The jugal is a slender element with a straight lower edge, a thin front branch overlapped by the rear branch of the maxilla and an ascending process towards the lacrimal that is thin but not pointed. The lacrimal is rectangular and pinched in the middle.
The neck vertebrae are elongated, opisthocoelous, i.e. with a vertebral body that is convex in front and concave at the rear, and crowned by low neural spines. Their undersides are slightly convex and their cross-sections are rectangular. At the front side the vertebral body is pierced by a pleurocoel, a depression with a pneumatic opening for the air sac to enter the inside of the vertebra. The tail vertebrae have two parallel keels at their undersides, which peter out towards the front. Their side processes are flat and broad.
The presence of a furcula was reported. Furculae have only rarely been recovered from early theropod fossils; other examples include those of Segisaurus and Coelophysis. The lower arm bones, the ulna and the radius, have a length of about seven centimetres. Hand elements are present but a formula of the phalanges could not determined.
In the pelvis, the pubic bone has a length of 212 millimetres. It points obliquely to the front. The pubic foot is moderately broadened in side view, bot at the front and at the rear. The shaft of the ischium is with a length of 129 millimetres markedly shorter than the pubic shaft. On the upper front edge a rectangular obturator process is present, forming a clear obturator notch with the ischial shaft. The shaft fan out to below, into an ischial foot.
On the thighbone, the lesser trochanter has about two thirds of the height of the greater trochanter and is separated from it by a V-shaped cleft. A clear fourth trochanter is present. In the foot, the third metatarsal has a length of 116 millimetres.
A cladistic analysis in 2016 determined that Dracoraptor was a basal member, positioned low in the evolutionary tree, of the Neotheropoda. It was the basalmost coelophysoid.
The precise affinities of Dracoraptor are indicated by its various traits. The build of the pelvis shows it was a saurischian dinosaur. Among dinosaurs, the dagger-shaped transversely flattened teeth are only found with Theropoda. A membership of the clade Neotheropoda is proven by the shallow depression around the fenestra antorbitalis, the forward position of a pleurcoel on the neck vertebrae and the presence of an obturator notch in the ischium. The position in the Coelophysoidea is more uncertain. Dracoraptor does not clearly share many of the synapomorphies of the group, such as a rounded jugal branch towards the lacrimal. This accounts for its basal position in the analysis. Further preparation of the fossils might provide additional information about its phylogeny.
At the end of the Triassic Period roughly half of Earth’s species became extinct in the Triassic-Jurassic extinction event. This extinction event allowed dinosaurs that survived it, to become the dominant land animals. The largest land predators at the end of the Triassic were Rauisuchia, large quadrupedal reptiles which disappeared in the extinction event allowing for dinosaur carnivores to become the largest land predators.
Dracoraptor had pointed and serrated teeth, indicating it was a meat-eater. But the teeth were small, about one centimetre long, showing it ate small vertebrate animals. In the early Jurassic, Lavernock Point was a small island and the cadaver of Dracoraptor had probably been washed into the sea. Despite the lack of data regarding its ecology, the authors in 2016 had it tentatively illustrated as a “shore-dwelling predator and scavenger”.
Dracoraptor is the oldest known Jurassic dinosaur. S. Vidovoc stated: “So this dinosaur starts to fill in some gaps in our knowledge about the dinosaurs that survived the Triassic extinction and gave rise to all the dinosaurs that we know from Jurassic Park, books and TV” and “Dinosaurs diversified and populated the ecological niches in the Early Jurassic.” 

The Berlin Key

“The Berlin key or how to do words with things” was written by sociologist Bruno Latour, and it originally appeared as La clef de Berlin et autres lecons d’un amateur de sciences, La Dècouverte

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, in 1993. “The Berlin key or how to do words with things” was later published as the first chapter in P.M. Graves-Brown’s Matter, Materiality and Modern Culture. Within the 15-page chapter, written informally in third-person narrative, Latour deftly exposes how many layers a unique key can connote. In the P.M. Graves-Brown version, Lydia Davis translated the piece into English. Additional editing was completed and illustrations redrawn by PMGB. The title could have been chosen as a witty word-play off of J.L. Austin’s How to Do Things With Words.
Latour argues that while an object’s purposefully designed material nature may recommend or permit a highly controlled set of functional purposes, it may also offer a broad range of valuable possibilities.
Latour uses the Berlin key to show that there are social constraints which force people to do whatever it is that the object makes them do; thus, the object (the Berlin key) is a sign, of sorts, telling the inhabitants to ‘lock their doors at night, but never during the day.’
Latour discusses the relationship between the social realm and the technological realm. He asserts that the Socialist and the Technologist are “enemy brothers”, thinking they will come to an end—the socialist with the social and the technologist with objects.

Federal Security Agency

The Federal Security Agency (FSA) was an independent agency of the United States government established in 1939 pursuant to the Reorganization Act of 1939. For a time, the agency oversaw food and drug safety as well as education funding and the administration of public health programs and the Social Security old-age pension plan.
The Reorganization Act of 1939 authorized the President of the United States to devise a plan to reorganize the executive branch of government. Pursuant to the Act, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued “Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1939” on April 25, 1939. The reorganization plan was designed to reduce the number of agencies reporting directly to the president.
The reorganization plan created the cabinet-level Federal Security Agency. Included in the FSA were the Social Security Board, the U.S. Public Health Service, the Food and Drug Administration, the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Office of Education (later the United States Department of Education), the National Youth Administration and a number of other agencies. Its first director was Paul V. McNutt. Secretly, the FSA was also a cover agency from 1942 to 1944 for the War Research Service, a secret program to develop chemical and biological weapons.
President Harry S. Truman attempted to make the FSA a department of the federal government, but this legislation was defeated

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In 1949, the United States Congress enacted the “Reorganization Act of 1949” (5 U.S.C. 901). Subsequently, President Dwight D

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. Eisenhower promulgated “Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953.” The Federal Security Agency was abolished and most of its functions were transferred to the newly formed United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW).

Innendruck-Spritzgießen

Innendruck-Spritzgießen oder auch Fluidinjektionstechnik (FIT) ist ein spezialisiertes Spritzgussverfahren zur Herstellung hohler Werkstücke. Nach einem Arbeitsschritt des herkömmlichen Spritzgießens bzw. nach einer definierten Teilfüllung der Gussform wird ein vorübergehender Füllstoff (Wasser oder inertes Gas, in der Regel Stickstoff) so in eine teilgefüllte Form injiziert, dass es als inneres Formstück (Matrize) wirkt. Durch die Verdrängung der Schmelze aus der Mitte wächst zum einen ein Hohlraum und zum anderen wird die Schmelze an bzw. in die äußere Gussform gedrückt. Nach Erstarren der Schmelze entweicht das Fluid wieder.
Es ähnelt damit dem Sandwich-Verfahren beim Mehrkomponenten-Spritzgießen.

Bei der Gasinjektionstechnik (GIT) oder auch Gasinnendruck-Spritzgießen (GID) verdrängt das Gas die Schmelze und übernimmt mit Drücken bis maximal 300 bar die Restfüllung. Das Injizieren kann durch die Maschinendüse und damit durch das Angusssystem oder durch eine separate Injektionsnadel direkt in das Formteil in der Kavität erfolgen. Eine weitere Variante ist die vollständige Füllung der Kavität mit Schmelze und anschließendem Ausblasen von Schmelze in eine Nebenkavität oder das Zurückblasen in den Schneckenzylinder.
Tendenziell bevorzugt man Gas immer dann, wenn Schwindung kompensiert werden soll, Masseanhäufungen nicht vermeidbar sind, Kanalquerschnitte sehr klein sind, Wasser nicht aus dem Bauteil entfernt werden kann oder die Baugröße des Injektors ausschlaggebend ist.
Das Wasserinjektionstechnik (WID), auch Wasserinnendruck-Spritzgießen oder kurz WID genannt, ist prinzipiell gleich dem Gasinnendruck-Spritzgießen mit dem Unterschied, dass statt Gas Wasser über einen sogenannten Injektor in ein Spritzgussbauteil eingeleitet wird. Längere Zeit scheiterte die technische Umsetzung an den anlagen- und betriebstechnischen Schwierigkeiten, die mit dem Medium Wasser verbunden sind (Dichtigkeit, Korrosion). Forschungsvorhaben am Institut für Kunststoffverarbeitung (IKV) an der RWTH Aachen zeigten jedoch Wege für die praxisnahe Realisierung des Verfahren auf, so dass dieses Verfahren mittlerweile erfolgreich am Markt etabliert ist.
Vorteile, die sich durch die Verwendung von Wasser ergeben, sind die deutliche Reduzierung der Taktzeit (größere Wärmekapazität des Wassers im Vergleich zu Stickstoff bei der GIT) und eine Verbesserung der Oberflächenstruktur, was insbesondere für Medienleitungen interessant ist.
Wasser kommt automatisch zum Zuge, wenn die Querschnitte und die Kanallänge in Abhängigkeit vom Material für die Gasinjektionstechnik zu groß werden und wenn bei unverstärkten Kunststoffen eine glatte, geschlossene Oberfläche gefordert ist, z. B. im Sanitärbereich. Im Allgemeinen spielt aber neben dem geringen Verzug die ebenfalls geringere erzielbare Restwanddicke eine zentrale Rolle. Betriebswirtschaftlich gesehen stehen die wesentlich kürzeren Taktzeiten und die nicht anfallenden Gaskosten bei der Auswahl von Wasser im Vordergrund. Bei großen Stückzahlen kann dies zu einer Reduzierung der Investitionskosten um bis zu 50 % führen (Halbierung der Fertigungslinien aufgrund des Effizienzanstiegs jeder einzelnen Linie).
Grundsätzlich haben diese beiden primären Verfahren ihr spezifisches Anwendungsgebiet, wobei dies überwiegend durch die Bauteilanforderung definiert wird. Im Übergangsbereich der Verfahrensauswahl entscheiden im Einzelfall die Gesamtkosten, die zu erwartende Stückzahl oder aber pragmatisch, welche Anlagentechnik bereits vorhanden ist.
Bei manchen Anwendungen reichen die bekannten Standardverfahren der Fluidinjektion nicht mehr aus. Hier steht dann eine wachsende Zahl von Sonderverfahren zur Verfügung, wie beispielsweise die Kombination von Wasser- und Gasinjektion in einem Bauteil. Bereiche mit größeren Querschnitten (z. B. Griffe) werden mit Fluidinjektionstechnik ausgeformt, zur Schwindungskompensation an Rippen aber simultan Gasinjektionstechnik eingesetzt. Typische Anwendungsfälle sind Verkleidungen mit rückseitigen Rippen und Griffbereichen, Türtaschen, Motorrad-, Roller- und Gepäckträger.
Durch das Entfernen nicht benötigten Materials aus dem Bauteilkern und dem nahezu ohne Druckverlust von innen wirkenden Nachdruck durch das Fluid sind neue Designs und eine sonst nicht erreichbare Qualität der Bauteile, insbesondere ihrer Oberfläche, möglich. Die gezielte Hohlraumbildung, die bereits bei der Formteilkonstruktion berücksichtigt werden muss, ermöglicht bei vergleichbarer Steifigkeit der Formteile erhebliche Materialeinsparungen und ergibt dadurch wirtschaftlichere und zugleich leichtere Designvariationen gegenüber dem normalen Spritzgießen. Zusätzlich ergeben sich kürzere Taktzeiten durch die schnellere Abkühlung durch die Wasser- bzw. Gasinjektion.
Die Verwendungsmöglichkeiten des Verfahrens erstrecken sich nicht nur auf herkömmliche thermoplastische Werkstoffe. Es ist für nahezu alle Formmassen mit Quellflussverhalten anwendbar. Dies trifft auf die meisten Thermoplaste, eine große Anzahl Duroplaste und auch viele Elastomere zu.
Besonders geeignete Formteile zur Anwendung des Innendruck-Spritzgießens sind z. B bogner outlet. lange, dickwandige Teile, wie Handgriffe oder auch PKW-Türinnenmodule. Diese Teile zeichnen sich durch sehr große Wandstärken aus. Man ist so in der Lage, Kunststoffteile mit sehr großen Wandstärken ohne Einfallstellen in einem Arbeitsgang herzustellen. Damit ist eine Materialersparnis bis ca. 50 % möglich. Es können sich dabei auch deutlich kürzere Taktzeiten durch kürzere Kühlzeiten aufgrund der geringeren Wandstärken ergeben. Zweiteilige Produkte, die bisher nach dem Spritzvorgang zusammengeklebt oder verschweißt wurden, sind in einem Arbeitsgang herstellbar.
Weitere Vorteile:
Nachteile:

Concussion

Une concussion (du latin concussio ; de concussum, supin de concussere : secouer) est, au sens étymologique du terme, une secousse, un ébranlement. Ce terme est par ailleurs un faux-ami désignant en anglais un traumatisme crânien. Au sens propre, il s’agit aujourd’hui de corruption passive, d’une malversation dans l’exercice d’une fonction publique, particulièrement dans le maniement des deniers publics. Par exemple, un agent public qui favorise un concurrent lors d’un marché public en échange d’une contrepartie financière commet un acte de concussion, tandis que le concurrent commet un acte de corruption.

La définition exacte de la concussion en droit romain n’est pas connue ; on ne peut tenter de déduire sa portée que d’après les exemples que donnent les textes antiques. La concussion serait le crime d’extorsion sans violence commis par un particulier ou un fonctionnaire, usant d’intimidation ou prétextant des pouvoirs fictifs, ou abusant de pouvoirs réels

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Passible sous l’Ancien Régime de peine capitale, la concussion n’est plus aujourd’hui frappée que d’emprisonnement, suivant la qualité du coupable et l’importance des sommes indûment exigées ou reçues. L’Histoire a retenu le nom des coupables de concussion suivants :
Le Code pénal français punit comme coupables de concussion les fonctionnaires ou officiers publics ainsi que leurs commis ou préposés qui ordonnent de percevoir, exigent ou reçoivent ce qu’ils savent « n’être pas dû ou excéder ce qui est dû pour droits, taxes, contributions, deniers ou revenus, ou pour salaires et traitements ». Le Code pénal, en son article 432-10, définit ce délit, et le sanctionne d’une peine de prison de cinq ans assortie d’une amende de 500000 euros.
Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Territorial spirit

Territorial Spirits are national angels, or demons, who rule over certain geographical areas in the world, a concept accepted within the Charismatic movement, Pentecostal traditions, and Kingdom Now theology. The philosophy relates to the Law of Attraction[citation needed]. This belief has been popularized by the novel free people dresses, This Present Darkness by Frank Peretti, as well as by the ministry of Peter Wagner. The existence of territorial spirits is viewed as significant in spiritual warfare within these Christian groups.

In both the Septuagint and the Dead Sea Scrolls, Deuteronomy 32:8-9 refers to a time when God divided the nations of the earth among the “sons of God” (Israel is excepted as the special possession of God Himself.) Given the meaning of this phrase in the Book of Job, it is suggested that this is a reference to the origin of territorial spirits who were, at one time, angels administering the earth on God’s behalf. Wagner appeals to F. F. Bruce, who points out that the Septuagint reading “implies that the administration of various nations has been parcelled out among a corresponding number of angelic powers.” The question remains, however, as to whether these spirits are malevolent.
Psalm 82 speaks of “gods” who are “sons of the most high” and are assigned to judge mankind. Psalm 58 covers similar ground.
Daniel 10 concerns the visitation of a man “His body was like topaz, his face like lightning, his eyes like flaming torches, his arms and legs like the gleam of burnished bronze, and his voice like the sound of a multitude. to the prophet Daniel. This man explains to Daniel that he was delayed by the “Prince of Persia” (10:13), but was helped by “Michael, one of the chief princes” (a reference to the Michael the Archangel

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, who was recognized in Jewish literature to be a chief angel guarding over Israel). Later in the chapter, the man warns Daniel that soon the “Prince of Greece” (10:20) will join his Persian counterpart to make war upon them.
Wagner regards this chapter is a key passage supporting the existence of territorial spirits, and appeals to Keil and Delitzsch, who suggest that the “prince of Persia” is the “guardian spirit of the kingdom.” George Otis says that Daniel 10 is “a well-defined case of an evil spiritual being ruling over an area with explicitly defined boundaries.” David E. Stevens notes that many scholars take the Prince of Persia to be an earthly political authority, such as Cambyses II. Stevens personally accepts the angelic interpretation, but argues that the “influence exerted by these angelic princes is personal and sociopolitical in nature and not territorial.” Stevens notes that in Daniel 12:1, Michael the Archangel, is described as “the great prince who protects your people” (NIV), which “emphasizes the protective role of Michael in relation to the people of God rather than with respect to a given territory. Michael remained the guardian angel of the people of God, whether Israel was in the Promised Land or was dispersed in exile among the nations.”
Melvin Tinker argues that the literary use of territorial spirits is a misnomer, since spirits referred to in various Biblical passages “are to be more associated with political and religious power and ideologies.”
Scholars such as Robert Priest, Paul Hiebert and A. Scott Moreau detect animist ideas in the arguments of supporters of the theory of territorial spirits. Robert Guelich of Fuller Theological Seminary does not find the concept of territorial spirits within the Gospels, and has analyzed this problem in a critical review of Frank E. Peretti’s novel This Present Darkness.
Peter Wagner promotes “Strategic-Level Spiritual Warfare” (SLSW) which involves the practice of learning the names and assignments of demonic spirits as the first step to effective spiritual warfare. Opponents of this theological construct, and associated beliefs in “spiritual warfare”, point out that while the Bible may describe some form of demonic control over geography, it does not prescribe many of the behaviors and teachings that proponents advocate in response. There is no mention in either the Hebrew Bible or the New Testament of believers banding together and praying a form of “spiritual warfare” against particular territorial demons. The battles occurring in the spiritual realms (as described in Daniel 10) have no Biblically identified link to the actions and prayers of God’s people in the physical world.

USS Blue Jay (AMc-23)

USS Blue Jay (AMc-23) was a coastal minesweeper acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II for the dangerous task of removing mines from minefields laid in the water to prevent ships from passing.
Charles J. Ashley—a wooden-hulled “dragger” (fishing craft) built in 1936 at Thomaston, Maine, by the Wilbur Morse Shipyards—was acquired by the Navy from John G. Murley of Fairhaven, Massachusetts, on 5 November 1940; renamed Blue Jay and classified as a coastal minesweeper, AMc-23, on 22 November 1940; converted to a minecraft at the Neponset, Massachusetts, shipyards of George Lawley & Sons; and placed in service at the Boston Navy Yard on 22 June 1941, Lt. Hiram S. Walker, Jr., USNR, in charge.

Departing Boston, Massachusetts, on 14 July le coq sportif outlet, Blue Jay arrived at the Mine Warfare School, Yorktown, Virginia, on the 18th for three weeks training. Departing Yorktown on 2 August, the minesweeper reached the Philadelphia Navy Yard the following day. Following upkeep, she and three other coastal minesweepers proceeded to the naval base at Cape May, New Jersey, on 16 August to operate as the minesweeping detachment of the 4th Naval District’s local defense forces. Blue Jay, her three near-sisters, and two coastal minesweepers, swept the mouth of the Delaware River into the autumn of 1943.
Ordered to Newport, Rhode Island, for conversion to a diving tender (YDT), Blue Jay arrived there on 6 November 1943. With her reclassification, her name and coastal minesweeper designator were cancelled on 20 November 1943; and she became simply YDT-6. Converted for her new work at the Boston Navy Yard—the alterations completed by 22 May 1944—she proceeded to Quonset Point, Rhode Island, the same day and operated out of the naval air station there as a torpedo retriever and diving tender.
Placed out of service on 15 April 1946, YDT-6 was struck from the Navy list on 8 May 1946 and turned over to the Maritime Commission for disposal. She was reacquired by her original owner, John G. Murley, on 20 December 1946, and resumed her prewar fishing pursuits.

Mike Hollis

Michael Shane Hollis (born May 22, 1972 in Kellogg, Idaho) is a former professional American football placekicker. He spent most of his nine-year professional career playing for the Jacksonville Jaguars of the National Football League (NFL), kicking for the team from 1995–2001 and setting several team records. He then played for the Buffalo Bills and New York Giants before retiring after an injury in 2003.

Hollis was born in Kellogg, Idaho and grew up in the Spokane, Washington area, where he graduated from Central Valley High School in 1990

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. He kicked for the University of Idaho in 1992 and 1993, after two seasons at Wenatchee Valley College.
Hollis was recruited by the Jacksonville Jaguars in the team’s inaugural 1995 season. He played for the Jaguars for seven seasons, setting a number of the new club’s kicking records. He was released following the 2001 season and was picked up by the Buffalo Bills, for whom he played for one season. He was signed by the New York Giants in 2003, but missed the 2003 season after being placed on injured reserve after hurting his back. He never recovered from the injury and failed his physical in March 2004, ending his NFL career.

Information literacy

The United States National Forum on Information Literacy defines information literacy as “… the ability to know when there is a need for information, to be able to identify, locate, evaluate, and effectively use that information for the issue or problem at hand.” Other definitions incorporate aspects of “skepticism, judgement, free thinking, questioning, and understanding…” or incorporate competencies that an informed citizen of an information society ought to possess to participate intelligently and actively in that society.
A number of efforts have been made to better define the concept and its relationship to other skills and forms of literacy. Although other educational goals, including traditional literacy, computer literacy, library skills, and critical thinking skills, are related to information literacy and important foundations for its development, information literacy itself is emerging as a distinct skill set and a necessary key to one’s social and economic well-being in an increasingly complex information society. According to McTavish (2009), in order to increase and maximize people’s contributions to a healthy, democratic and pluralistic society and maintain a prosperous and sustainable economy, governments and industries around the world are challenging education systems to focus people’s attention on literacy. In Canada, because of a great focus on a supposed literacy crisis, it has caused some alarm in some educational sectors. Brink (2006) researched government organization, such as Human Resources and Skill Development Canada, claims that almost half of working-age Canadians do not have the literacy skills they need to meet the ever-increasing demands of modern life.

The phrase information literacy first appeared in print in a 1974 report by Paul G. Zurkowski written on behalf of the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science. Zurkowski used the phrase to describe the “techniques and skills” learned by the information literate “for utilizing the wide range of information tools as well as primary sources in molding information solutions to their problems” and drew a relatively firm line between the “literates” and “information illiterates”.
The Presidential Committee on Information Literacy released a report on January 10, 1989, outlining the importance of information literacy, opportunities to develop information literacy, and an Information Age School. The report’s final name is the Presidential Committee on Information Literacy: Final Report.
The recommendations of the Presidential Committee led to the creation later that year of the National Forum on Information Literacy, a coalition of more than 90 national and international organizations.
In 1998, the American Association of School Librarians and the Association for Educational Communications and Technology published Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning, which further established specific goals for information literacy education, defining some nine standards in the categories of “information literacy”, “independent learning”, and “social responsibility”.
Also in 1998, the Presidential Committee on Information Literacy produced an update on its Final Report. This update outlined the six main recommendations of the original report and examined areas where it made progress and areas that still needed work. The updated report supports further information literacy advocacy and reiterates its importance.
In 1999, the Society of College, National and University Libraries (SCONUL) in the UK, published “The Seven Pillars of Information Literacy” model to “facilitate further development of ideas amongst practitioners in the field … stimulate debate about the ideas and about how those ideas might be used by library and other staff in higher education concerned with the development of students’ skills.” A number of other countries have developed information literacy standards since then.
In 2003, the National Forum on Information Literacy, together with UNESCO and the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, sponsored an international conference in Prague with representatives from some twenty-three countries to discuss the importance of information literacy within a global context. The resulting Prague Declaration described information literacy as a “key to social, cultural, and economic development of nations and communities, institutions and individuals in the 21st century” and declared its acquisition as “part of the basic human right of life long learning”.
The Alexandria Proclamation linked Information literacy with lifelong learning. More than that, it sets Information Literacy as a basic Human right that it “promotes social inclusion of all nations”.
On May 28, 2009, U.S. California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed Executive Order S-06-09, establishing a California ICT Digital Literacy Leadership Council, which in turn, was directed to establish an ICT Digital Literacy Advisory Committee. “The Leadership Council, in consultation with the Advisory Committee, shall develop an ICT Digital Literacy Policy, to ensure that California residents are digitally literate.” The Executive Order states further: “ICT Digital Literacy is defined as using digital technology, communications tools and/or networks to access, manage, integrate, evaluate, create, and communicate information in order to function in a knowledge-based economy and society…” The Governor directs “…The Leadership Council, in consultation with the Advisory Committee… [to] develop a California Action Plan for ICT Digital Literacy (Action Plan).” He also directs “The California Workforce Investment Board (WIB)… [to] develop a technology literacy component for its five-year Strategic State Plan.” His Executive Order ends with the following: “I FURTHER REQUEST that the Legislature and Superintendent of Public Instruction consider adopting similar goals, and that they join the Leadership Council in issuing a “Call to Action” to schools, higher education institutions, employers, workforce training agencies, local governments, community organizations, and civic leaders to advance California as a global leader in ICT Digital Literacy”.
Information literacy rose to national consciousness in the U.S. with President Barack Obama’s Proclamation designating October 2009 as National Information Literacy Awareness Month. President Obama’s Proclamation stated that
“Rather than merely possessing data, we must also learn the skills necessary to acquire, collate, and evaluate information for any situation… Though we may know how to find the information we need, we must also know how to evaluate it. Over the past decade, we have seen a crisis of authenticity emerge. We now live in a world where anyone can publish an opinion or perspective, whether true or not, and have that opinion amplified within the information marketplace. At the same time, Americans have unprecedented access to the diverse and independent sources of information, as well as institutions such as libraries and universities, that can help separate truth from fiction and signal from noise.”
Obama’s proclamation ended with:
“Now, therefore, I, Barack Obama, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim October 2009 as National Information Literacy Awareness Month. I call upon the people of the United States to recognize the important role information plays in our daily lives, and appreciate the need for a greater understanding of its impact.”
The Presidential Committee on Information Literacy was formed in 1987 by the American Library Association’s president at the time Margaret Chisholm. The committee was formed with three specific purposes
The American Library Association’s Presidential Committee on Information Literacy defined information literacy as the ability “to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information” and highlighted information literacy as a skill essential for lifelong learning and the production of an informed and prosperous citizenry.
The committee outlined six principal recommendations: to “reconsider the ways we have organized information institutionally, structured information access, and defined information’s role in our lives at home in the community, and in the work place”; to promote “public awareness of the problems created by information illiteracy”; to develop a national research agenda related to information and its use; to ensure the existence of “a climate conducive to students’ becoming information literate”; to include information literacy concerns in teacher education; and to promote public awareness of the relationship between information literacy and the more general goals of “literacy, productivity, and democracy.”
In March 1998 the Presidential Committee on Information Literacy re-evaluated its Final Report and published an update. The update looks at what the Final Report set out to accomplish, its six main goals, and how far it had come to that point in meeting those objectives. Before identifying what still needs to be done, the updated report recognizes what the previous report and the National Forum were able to accomplish. In realizing it still had not met all objectives, it set out further recommendations to ensure all were met. The updated report ends with an invitation, asking the National Forum and regular citizens to recognize that “the result of these combined efforts will be a citizenry which is made up of effective lifelong learners who can always find the information needed for the issue or decision at hand. This new generation of information literate citizens will truly be America’s most valuable resource”, and to continue working toward an information literate world.
One of the most important things to come out of the Presidential Committee on Information Literacy was the creation of the National Forum on Information Literacy.
In 1983, the seminal report “A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform” declared that a “rising tide of mediocrity” was eroding the very foundations of the American educational system. It was, in fact, the genesis of the current educational reform movement within the United States. Ironically, the report did not include in its set of reform recommendations the academic and/or the public library as one of the key architects in the redesign of our K-16 educational system. This report and several others that followed, in conjunction with the rapid emergence of the information society, led the American Library Association (ALA) to convene a blue ribbon panel of national educators and librarians in 1987. The ALA Presidential Committee on Information Literacy was charged with the following tasks: (1) to define information literacy within the higher literacies and its importance to student performance, lifelong learning, and active citizenship; (2) to design one or more models for information literacy development appropriate to formal and informal learning environments throughout people’s lifetimes; and (3) to determine implications for the continuing education and development of teachers. In the release of its Final Report in 1989, the American Library Association Presidential Committee on Information Literacy summarized in its opening paragraphs the ultimate mission of the National Forum on Information Literacy:
“How our country deals with the realities of the Information Age will have enormous impact on our democratic way of life and on our nation’s ability to compete internationally. Within America’s information society, there also exists the potential of addressing many long-standing social and economic inequities. To reap such benefits, people—as individuals and as a nation—must be information literate. To be information literate, a person must be able to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information. Producing such a citizenry will require that schools and colleges appreciate and integrate the concept of information literacy into their learning programs and that they play a leadership role in equipping individuals and institutions to take advantage of the opportunities inherent within the information society.
Ultimately, information literate people are those who have learned how to learn. They know how to learn because they know how knowledge is organized, how to find information, and how to use information in such a way that others can learn from them. They are people prepared for lifelong learning because they can always find the information needed for any task or decision at hand.”
Acknowledging that the major obstacle to people becoming information literate citizens, who are prepared for lifelong learning, “is a lack of public awareness of the problems created by information illiteracy,” the report recommended the formation of a coalition of national organizations to promote information literacy.”
Thus, in 1989, the A.L.A. Presidential Committee established the National Forum on Information Literacy which is a volunteer network of organizations committed to raising public awareness on the importance of information literacy to individuals, to our diverse communities, to our economy, and to engage citizenship participation.
Since 1989, the National Forum on Information Literacy has evolved steadily under the leadership of its first chair, Dr. Patricia Senn Breivik. Today, the Forum represents over 90 national and international organizations, all dedicated to mainstreaming the philosophy of information literacy across national and international landscapes,and throughout every educational, domestic, and workplace venue.
Although the initial intent of the Forum was to raise public awareness and support on a national level, over the last several years, the National Forum on Information Literacy has made significant strides internationally in promoting the importance of integrating information literacy concepts and skills throughout all educational, governmental, and workforce development programs. For example, the National Forum co-sponsored with UNESCO and IFLA several “experts meetings”, resulting in the Prague Declaration (2003) and the Alexandria Proclamation (2005) each underscoring the importance of information literacy as a basic fundamental human right and lifelong learning skill.
In the United States, however, information literacy skill development has been the exception and not the rule, particularly as it relates to the integration of information literacy practices within our educational and workforce development infrastructures. In a 2000 peer reviewed publication, Nell K. Duke, found that students in first grade classrooms were exposed to an average of 3

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.6 minutes of informational text in a school day. In October 2006, the first national Summit on Information Literacy brought together well over 100 representatives from education, business, and government to address America’s information literacy deficits as a nation currently competing in a global marketplace. This successful collaboration was sponsored by the National Forum on Information Literacy, Committee for Economic Development, Educational Testing Service, the Institute for a Competitive Workforce, and National Education Association (NEA). The Summit was held at NEA headquarters in Washington, D.C.
A major outcome of the Summit was the establishment of a national ICT literacy policy council to provide leadership in creating national standards for ICT literacy in the United States.
As stated on the Forum’s Main Web page, it recognizes that achieving information literacy has been much easier for those with money and other advantages. For those who are poor, non-White, older, disabled, living in rural areas or otherwise disadvantaged, it has been much harder to overcome the digital divide. A number of the Forum’s members address the specific challenges for those disadvantaged. For example, The Children’s Partnership advocates for the nearly 70 million children and youth in the country, many of whom are disadvantaged. The Children’s Partnership currently runs three programs, two of which specifically address the needs of those with low-incomes: Online content for Low-Income and Underserved Americans Initiative, and the California Initiative Program. Another example is the National Hispanic Council on Aging which is:
Dedicated to improving the quality of life for Latino elderly, families, and communities through advocacy, capacity and institution building, development of educational materials, technical assistance, demonstration projects, policy analysis and research (National Hispanic Council on Aging, and, Mission Statement section).
The National Forum on Information Literacy will continue to work closely with educational, business, and non-profit organizations in the U.S. to promote information literacy skill development at every opportunity, particularly in light of the ever growing social, economic, and political urgency of globalization, prompting citizens to re-energize our promotional and collaborative efforts.
IFLA has established an Information Literacy Section. The Section has, in turn, developed and mounted an Information Literacy Resources Directory, called InfoLit Global. Librarians, educators and information professionals may self-register and upload information-literacy-related materials (IFLA, Information Literacy Section, n.d.) According to the IFLA website, “The primary purpose of the Information Literacy Section is to foster international cooperation in the development of information literacy education in all types of libraries and information institutions.”
This alliance was created from the recommendation of the Prague Conference of Information Literacy Experts in 2003. One of its goals is to allow for the sharing of information literacy research and knowledge between nations. The IAIL also sees “life-long learning” as a basic human right, and their ultimate goal is to use information literacy as a way to allow everyone to participate in the “Information Society” as a way of fulfilling this right. The following organizations are founding members of IAIL:
According to the UNESCO website, this is their “action to provide people with the skills and abilities for critical reception, assessment and use of information and media in their professional and personal lives.” Their goal is to create information literate societies by creating and maintaining educational policies for information literacy. They work with teachers around the world, training them in the importance of information literacy and providing resources for them to use in their classrooms.
UNESCO publishes studies on information literacy in many countries, looking at how information literacy is currently taught, how it differs in different demographics, and how to raise awareness. They also publish pedagogical tools and curricula for school boards and teachers to refer to and use.
In “Information Literacy as a Liberal Art”, Jeremy J. Shapiro and Shelley K. Hughes advocated a more holistic approach to information literacy education, one that encouraged not merely the addition of information technology courses as an adjunct to existing curricula, but rather a radically new conceptualization of “our entire educational curriculum in terms of information”.
Drawing upon Enlightenment ideals like those articulated by Enlightenment philosopher Condorcet, Shapiro and Hughes argued that information literacy education is “essential to the future of democracy, if citizens are to be intelligent shapers of the information society rather than its pawns, and to humanistic culture, if information is to be part of a meaningful existence rather than a routine of production and consumption”.
To this end, Shapiro and Hughes outlined a “prototype curriculum” that encompassed the concepts of computer literacy, library skills, and “a broader, critical conception of a more humanistic sort”, suggesting seven important components of a holistic approach to information literacy:
Ira Shor further defines critical literacy as “[habits] of thought, reading, writing, and speaking which go beneath surface meaning, first impressions, dominant myths, official pronouncements, traditional clichés, received wisdom, and mere opinions, to understand the deep meaning, root causes, social context, ideology, and personal consequences of any action, event, object, process, organization, experience, text, subject matter, policy, mass media, or discourse”.
Based on the Big6 by Mike Eisenberg and Bob Berkowitz.
1. The first step in the Information Literacy strategy is to clarify and understand the requirements of the problem or task for which information is sought. Basic questions asked at this stage:
2. Locating: The second step is to identify sources of information and to find those resources. Depending upon the task, sources that will be helpful may vary. Sources may include books, encyclopedias, maps, almanacs, etc. Sources may be in electronic, print, social bookmarking tools, or other formats.
3. Selecting/analyzing: Step three involves examining the resources that were found. The information must be determined to be useful or not useful in solving the problem. The useful resources are selected and the inappropriate resources are rejected.
4.Organizing/synthesizing: It is in the fourth step this information which has been selected is organized and processed so that knowledge and solutions are developed. Examples of basic steps in this stage are:
5.Creating/presenting: In step five the information or solution is presented to the appropriate audience in an appropriate format. A paper is written. A presentation is made. Drawings, illustrations, and graphs are presented.
6. Evaluating: The final step in the Information Literacy strategy involves the critical evaluation of the completion of the task or the new understanding of the concept. Was the problem solved? Was new knowledge found? What could have been done differently? What was done well?
The Big6 skills have been used in a variety of settings to help those with a variety of needs. For example, the library of Dubai Women’s College, in Dubai, United Arab Emirates which is an English as a second language institution, uses the Big6 model for its information literacy workshops. According to Story-Huffman (2009), using Big6 at the college “has transcended cultural and physical boundaries to provide a knowledge base to help students become information literate” (para. 8). In primary grades, Big6 has been found to work well with variety of cognitive and language levels found in the classroom.
Differentiated instruction and the Big6 appear to be made for each other. While it seems as though all children will be on the same Big6 step at the same time during a unit of instruction, there is no reason students cannot work through steps at an individual pace. In addition, the Big 6 process allows for seamless differentiation by interest.
A number of weaknesses in the Big6 approach have been highlighted by Philip Doty:
This approach is problem-based, is designed to fit into the context of Benjamin Bloom’s taxonomy of cognitive objectives, and aims toward the development of critical thinking. While the Big6 approach has a great deal of power, it also has serious weaknesses. Chief among these are the fact that users often lack well-formed statements of information needs, as well as the model’s reliance on problem-solving rhetoric. Often, the need for information and its use are situated in circumstances that are not as well-defined, discrete, and monolithic as problems.
Eisenberg (2004) has recognized that there are a number of challenges to effectively applying the Big6 skills, not the least of which is information overload which can overwhelm students. Part of Eisenberg’s solution is for schools to help students become discriminating users of information.
This conception, used primarily in the library and information studies field, and rooted in the concepts of library instruction and bibliographic instruction, is the ability “to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate and use effectively the needed information”. In this view, information literacy is the basis for lifelong learning.
In the publication Information power: Building partnerships for learning (AASL and AECT, 1998), three categories, nine standards, and twenty-nine indicators are used to describe the information literate student. The categories and their standards are as follows:
Category 1: Information Literacy
Standards:
Category 2: Independent Learning
Standards:
Category 3: Social Responsibility
Standards:
Since information may be presented in a number of formats, the term “information” applies to more than just the printed word. Other literacies such as visual, media, computer, network, and basic literacies are implicit in information literacy.
Many of those who are in most need of information literacy are often amongst those least able to access the information they require:
Minority and at-risk students, illiterate adults, people with English as a second language, and economically disadvantaged people are among those most likely to lack access to the information that can improve their situations. Most are not even aware of the potential help that is available to them.
As the Presidential Committee report points out, members of these disadvantaged groups are often unaware that libraries can provide them with the access, training and information they need. In Osborne (2004) many libraries around the country are finding numerous ways to reach many of these disadvantaged groups by discovering their needs in their own environments (including prisons) and offering them specific services in the libraries themselves.
The rapidly evolving information landscape has demonstrated a need for education methods and practices to evolve and adapt accordingly. Information literacy is a key focus of educational institutions at all levels and in order to uphold this standard, institutions are promoting a commitment to lifelong learning and an ability to seek out and identify innovations that will be needed to keep pace with or outpace changes.
Educational methods and practices, within our increasingly information-centric society, must facilitate and enhance a student’s ability to harness the power of information. Key to harnessing the power of information is the ability to evaluate information, to ascertain among other things its relevance, authenticity and modernity. The information evaluation process is crucial life skill and a basis for lifelong learning. According to Lankshear and Knobel, what is needed in our education system is a new understanding of literacy, information literacy and on literacy teaching. Educators need to learn to account for the context of our culturally and linguistically diverse and increasingly globalized societies. We also need to take account for the burgeoning variety of text forms associated with information and multimedia technologies.
Evaluation consists of several component processes including metacognition, goals, personal disposition, cognitive development, deliberation, and decision-making. This is both a difficult and complex challenge and underscores the importance of being able to think critically.
Critical thinking is an important educational outcome for students. Education institutions have experimented with several strategies to help foster critical thinking, as a means to enhance information evaluation and information literacy among students. When evaluating evidence, students should be encouraged to practice formal argumentation. Debates and formal presentations must also be encouraged to analyze and critically evaluate information.
Education professionals must underscore the importance of high information quality. Students must be trained to distinguish between fact and opinion. They must be encouraged to use cue words such as “I think” and “I feel” to help distinguish between factual information and opinions. Information related skills that are complex or difficult to comprehend must be broken down into smaller parts. Another approach would be to train students in familiar contexts. Education professionals should encourage students to examine “causes” of behaviors, actions and events. Research shows that people evaluate more effectively if causes are revealed, where available.
Some call for increased critical analysis in Information Literacy instruction. Smith (2013) identifies this as beneficial “to individuals, particularly young people during their period of formal education. It could equip them with the skills they need to understand the political system and their place within it, and, where necessary, to challenge this” (p. 16).
National content standards, state standards, and information literacy skills terminology may vary, but all have common components relating to information literacy.
Information literacy skills are critical to several of the National Education Goals outlined in the Goals 2000: Educate America Act, particularly in the act’s aims to increase “school readiness”, “student achievement and citizenship”, and “adult literacy and lifelong learning”. Of specific relevance are the “focus on lifelong learning, the ability to think critically, and on the use of new and existing information for problem solving”, all of which are important components of information literacy.
In 1998, the American Association of School Librarians and the Association for Educational Communications and Technology published “Information Literacy Standards for Student Learning”, which identified nine standards that librarians and teachers in K-12 schools could use to describe information literate students and define the relationship of information literacy to independent learning and social responsibility:
In 2007 AASL expanded and restructured the standards that school librarians should strive for in their teaching. These were published as “Standards for the 21st Century Learner” and address several literacies: information, technology, visual, textual, and digital. These aspects of literacy were organized within four key goals: that “learners use of skills, resources, & tools” to “inquire, think critically, and gain knowledge”; to “draw conclusions, make informed decisions, apply knowledge to new situations, and create new knowledge”; to “share knowledge and participate ethically and productively as members of our democratic society”; and to “pursue personal and aesthetic growth”.
In 2000, the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), released “Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education”, describing five standards and numerous performance indicators considered best practices for the implementation and assessment of postsecondary information literacy programs. The five standards are:
These standards are meant to span from the simple to more complicated, or in terms of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, from the “lower order” to the “higher order”. Lower order skills would involve for instance being able to use an online catalog to find a book relevant to an information need in an academic library. Higher order skills would involve critically evaluating and synthesizing information from multiple sources into a coherent interpretation or argument.
Today instruction methods have changed drastically from the mostly one-directional teacher-student model, to a more collaborative approach where the students themselves feel empowered. Much of this challenge is now being informed by the American Association of School Librarians that published new standards for student learning in 2007.
Within the K-12 environment, effective curriculum development is vital to imparting Information Literacy skills to students. Given the already heavy load on students, efforts must be made to avoid curriculum overload. Eisenberg strongly recommends adopting a collaborative approach to curriculum development among classroom teachers, librarians, technology teachers, and other educators. Staff must be encouraged to work together to analyze student curriculum needs, develop a broad instruction plan, set information literacy goals, and design specific unit and lesson plans that integrate the information skills and classroom content. These educators can also collaborate on teaching and assessment duties
Educators are selecting various forms of resource-based learning (authentic learning, problem-based learning and work-based learning) to help students focus on the process and to help students learn from the content. Information literacy skills are necessary components of each. Within a school setting, it is very important that a students’ specific needs as well as the situational context be kept in mind when selecting topics for integrated information literacy skills instruction. The primary goal should be to provide frequent opportunities for students to learn and practice information problem solving. To this extent, it is also vital to facilitate repetition of information seeking actions and behavior. The importance of repetition in information literacy lesson plans cannot be underscored, since we tend to learn through repetition. A students’ proficiency will improve over time if they are afforded regular opportunities to learn and to apply the skills they have learnt.
The process approach to education is requiring new forms of student assessment. Students demonstrate their skills, assess their own learning, and evaluate the processes by which this learning has been achieved by preparing portfolios, learning and research logs, and using rubrics.
Information literacy efforts are underway on individual, local, and regional bases.
Many states have either fully adopted AASL information literacy standards or have adapted them to suit their needs. States such as Oregon (OSLIS, 2009) increasing rely on these guidelines for curriculum development and setting information literacy goals. Virginia, on the other hand, chose to undertake a comprehensive review, involving all relevant stakeholders and formulate it own guidelines and standards for information literacy. At an international level, two framework documents jointly produced by UNESCO and the IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) developed two framework documents that laid the foundations in helping define the educational role to be played by school libraries: the School library manifesto (1999),.
Another immensely popular approach to imparting information literacy is the Big6 set of skills. Eisenberg claims that the Big6 is the most widely used model in K-12 education. This set of skills seeks to articulate the entire information seeking life cycle. The Big6 is made up of six major stages and two sub-stages under each major stages. It defines the six steps as being: task definition, information seeking strategies, location and access, use of information, synthesis, and evaluation. Such approaches seek to cover the full range of information problem-solving actions that a person would normally undertake, when faced with an information problem or with making a decision based on available resources.
Information literacy instruction in higher education can take a variety of forms: stand-alone courses or classes, online tutorials, workbooks, course-related instruction, or course-integrated instruction. One attempt in the area of physics was published in 2009.
The six regional accreditation boards have added information literacy to their standards, Librarians often are required to teach the concepts of information literacy during “one shot” classroom lectures. There are also credit courses offered by academic librarians to prepare college students to become information literate.
Now that information literacy has become a part of the core curriculum at many post-secondary institutions, it is incumbent upon the library community to be able to provide information literacy instruction in a variety of formats, including online learning and distance education. The Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) addresses this need in its Guidelines for Distance Education Services (2000):
Library resources and services in institutions of higher education must meet the needs of all their faculty, students, and academic support staff, wherever these individuals are located, whether on a main campus, off campus, in distance education or extended campus programs—or in the absence of a campus at all, in courses taken for credit or non-credit; in continuing education programs; in courses attended in person or by means of electronic transmission; or any other means of distance education.
Within the e-learning and distance education worlds, providing effective information literacy programs brings together the challenges of both distance librarianship and instruction. With the prevalence of course management systems such as WebCT and Blackboard, library staff are embedding information literacy training within academic programs and within individual classes themselves.
There are several national and international conferences dedicated to information literacy. There is an annual satellite conference associated with the IFLA World Library and Information Congress organised by the IFLA Information Literacy Section. Within the UK, since 2005 there has been a Librarians’ Information Literacy Annual Conference, or LILAC for short, organised by an Information Literacy Group that is now a special interest group of CILIP. The European Conference on Information Literacy, or ECIL held its first conference during October 2013 in Istanbul, Turkey. Most recently, the 14th annual Information Literacy Summit was held at Moraine Valley Community College in Palos Hills, IL.
45. Bruce, C.S. (1997). ¹he Seven Faces of Information ¸iteracy. Adelaide: Auslib Press