Wittenberg (district)

Wittenberg is a district (Kreis) in the east of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany royal football socks. Neighboring districts are (from west clockwise) Anhalt-Bitterfeld, the district-free city of Dessau-Roßlau, the districts of Potsdam-Mittelmark, Teltow-Fläming and Elbe-Elster in Brandenburg, and the district of Nordsachsen in the Free State of Saxony

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In 1994 the district was merged with the district of Jessen and a small part of the district of Gräfenhainichen 48 blade meat tenderizer. In 2007, 27 municipalities from the former district Anhalt-Zerbst were added to the district of Wittenberg.

The main rivers in the district are the Elbe and its tributary top college uniforms, the Schwarze Elster.

The coat of arms show two swords which is the symbol of a field marshal in the Holy Roman Empire. This title was bestowed upon the counts of Saxony, who therefore added the symbol to their coat of arms. The center of the principality of Saxony was located in the area now covered by the district.

The district of Wittenberg consists of the following towns:

After the resolution of 6 October 2005, as part of municipal reform, the (then) 27 towns and municipalities of the former Verwaltungsgemeinschaften of Coswig and Wörlitzer Winkel, formerly in the Anhalt-Zerbst district, were assigned to Wittenberg district on 1 July 2007.

Wittenberg market square with Stadtkirche Wittenberg

Wittenberg old town with All Saints’ Church under construction

Jessen market square

Coswig view river Elbe

Ferropolis in Gräfenhainichen

Oranienbaum aerial view

The Dessau-Wörlitz Garden Realm

Media related to Landkreis Wittenberg at Wikimedia Commons

Coordinates:

Serbia under Vinter-OL for ungdom 2016

Serbia deltar under Vinter-OL for ungdom 2016 fra 12. februar til 21. februar 2016 i Lillehammer i Norge. Troppen består av tre utøvere glass water bottles online india.

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Étang Zombis

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Guadeloupe

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Petites Antilles

L’étang Zombis est un lac situé sur le territoire de la commune de Capesterre-Belle-Eau en Guadeloupe dans les Antilles françaises. Situé à 600 mètres du Grand Étang, il est accessible par la route de l’Habituée (D4) menant aux chutes du Carbet arsenal football shirt. L’étang possède une espèce endémique d’Alismataceae aquatique l’Helanthium zombiense (en) découverte en 1992.

Le plan d’eau est situé sur le territoire de la commune de Capesterre-Belle-Eau sur l’île de Basse-Terre mais à juste l’extérieur du parc national de la Guadeloupe. Il est à 420 mètres d’altitude sur les flancs orientaux de la Soufrière et à 1,5 km des chutes du Carbet. Son alimentation se fait par les eaux de la ravine Tonnelle, ainsi que par les sources de la Crête à Bambous. Alimentant le même réseau hydrographique que le Grand Étang, son exutoire rejoint le cours de la rivière du Bananier dont il participe, dans une petite mesure, à réguler le niveau lors de fortes pluies ou de sécheresse good quality water bottles.

De forme allongée avec 270 mètres de longueur et 110 mètres de largeurs maximales, il s’étend, selon les saisons et les crues dues aux pluies, sur une surface d’approximativement 1,4 hectares d’eau libre (et potentiellement jusqu’à plus de 2 ha dans son expansion maximale dans ses zones littorales). C’est le second plus important des lacs du secteur qui comprend outre le Grand Étang, l’étang Madère, l’étang Jonc, l’étang Roche et l’étang As de Pique.

Formé par le remplissage d’une cuvette de dépression dans les coulées de lave issues de la Madeleine et du Morne Boudoute ayant buté sur le Morne Dongo, le lac a une profondeur maximale de l’ordre de 7 mètres (possiblement en diminution) au niveau de son exutoire et pourrait, à terme, se combler totalement par un phénomène naturel d’« atterrissement » comme cela est déjà le cas de certains étangs alentours (Jonc, Madère et Roche).

Contrairement au Grand Étang pourtant très proche, l’étang Zombis est bien mieux protégé des espèces exotiques et invasives, du fait de sa moindre fréquentation et de la non-introduction dans ses eaux des Tilapias et autres mollusques ainsi que de raisons qui lui sont propres et encore indéterminées. Cependant bag phone, s’agissant d’une propriété privée située à l’extérieur du parc national de la Guadeloupe, il constitue un espace naturel menacé.

Du fait d’une saturation en oxygène de ses eaux par les courants, l’étang s’apparente à un système lotique avec la présence de nombreux macrophytes dont Eleocharis interstincta et Cladium mariscus jamaicense. À la différence du Grand Étang, il présente sur tout son pourtours une forte population de palétuviers jaunes (Symphonia globulifera) qui participent à la régulation de l’écosystème avec leurs racines et à la variation de sa surface en eaux. Surtout, l’étang Zombis possède une espèce endémique d’Alismataceae aquatique découverte en 1992 et reconnue comme espèce à part entière en 2001, l’Helanthium zombiense (en) se reproduisant multiplication végétative.

Parmi les crustacés présents dans l’étang – en plus du répandu Macrobrachium carcinus (le « Ouassou » local) –, deux nouvelles espèces, pour la Guadeloupe, de copépodes (Eucyclops ensifers et Mesocyclops longisetus curvatus) ont été identifiées vivant dans le réseau racinaire des plantes aquatiques Utricularia gibba. À ce jour, aucune espèce de poisson n’a été trouvée dans l’étang qui reste préservé des apports exotiques de Tilapias. L’inventaire complet de la faune aviaire n’est pas disponible mais comme le Grand Étang tout proche, il doit constituer une zone de reproduction pour les Poules d’eau et le Héron vert ; une zone de pêche pour le Trembleur brun, le Balbuzard pêcheur et depuis 2012 pour le rare Martin-pêcheur à ventre roux.

Phrygians

The Phrygians (gr. Φρύγες, Phruges or Phryges) were an ancient Indo-European people, initially dwelling in the southern Balkans – according to Herodotus – under the name of Bryges (Briges), changing it to Phruges after their final migration to Anatolia, via the Hellespont.

From tribal and village beginnings, the state of Phrygia arose in the eighth century BC with its capital at Gordium. During this period, the Phrygians extended eastward and encroached upon the kingdom of Urartu, the descendants of the Hurrians, a former rival of the Hittites.

Meanwhile, the Phrygian Kingdom was overwhelmed by Cimmerian invaders around 690 BC, then briefly conquered by its neighbour Lydia, before it passed successively into the Persian Empire of Cyrus the Great and the empire of Alexander and his successors, was taken by the Attalids of Pergamon, and eventually became part of the Roman Empire. The last mention of the Phrygian language in literature dates to the fifth century AD and it was likely extinct by the seventh century.

The Phrygians spoke Phrygian, an Indo-European language. Some contemporary historians, among which Strabo is the most known, consider the Phrygians a Thracian tribe, part of a wider “Thraco-Phrygian” group. Other linguists dismiss this hypothesis since Thracian (and hence Daco-Thracian) seems to belong to the Satem group of Indo-European languages, while Phrygian shared several similarities with other Indo-European languages of the Centum group (like Latin, Greek or the Anatolian languages). According to this second group of linguists, of all the Indo-European languages, Phrygian seems to have been most closely linked to Greek, suggesting that the two languages belonged to the same dialectal subgroup of early Indo-European. (See Phrygian language.) Although the Phrygians adopted the alphabet originated by the Phoenicians and ultimately from Ancient Egyptians, only a few dozen inscriptions in the Phrygian language have been found, primarily funereal, and so much of what is thought to be known of Phrygia is second-hand information from Greek sources.

A conventional date of c. 1180 BC is often used for the influx (traditionally from Thrace) of the pre-Phrygian Bryges or Mushki, corresponding to the very end of the Hittite empire. Following this date, Phrygia retained a separate cultural identity. E. g. in classical Greek iconography the Trojan Paris is represented as non-Greek by his Phrygian cap, which was worn by Mithras and survived into modern imagery as the “Liberty cap” of the American and French revolutionaries.

Phrygia developed an advanced Bronze Age culture. The earliest traditions of Greek music are in part connected to Phrygian music running light belt, transmitted through the Greek colonies in Anatolia, especially the Phrygian mode, which was considered to be the warlike mode in ancient Greek music. Phrygian Midas, the king of the “golden touch”, was tutored in music by Orpheus himself, according to the myth. Another musical invention that came from Phrygia was the aulos, a reed instrument with two pipes. Marsyas, the satyr who first formed the instrument using the hollowed antler of a stag, was a Phrygian follower of Cybele. He unwisely competed in music with the Olympian Apollo and inevitably lost, whereupon Apollo flayed Marsyas alive and provocatively hung his skin on Cybele’s own sacred tree, a pine.

It was the “Great Mother”, Cybele, as the Greeks and Romans knew her, who was originally worshipped in the mountains of Phrygia, where she was known as “Mountain Mother”. In her typical Phrygian form, she wears a long belted dress, a polos (a high cylindrical headdress), and a veil covering the whole body. The later version of Cybele was established by a pupil of Phidias, the sculptor Agoracritus, and became the image most widely adopted by Cybele’s expanding following, both in the Aegean world and at Rome. It shows her humanized though still enthroned, her hand resting on an attendant lion and the other holding the tympanon, a circular frame drum, similar to a tambourine.

The Phrygians also venerated Sabazios, the sky and father-god depicted on horseback. Although the Greeks associated Sabazios with Zeus, representations of him, even at Roman times, show him as a horseman god. His conflicts with the indigenous Mother Goddess, whose creature was the Lunar Bull, may be surmised in the way that Sabazios’ horse places a hoof on the head of a bull, in a Roman relief at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

The name of the earliest known mythical king was Nannacus (aka Annacus). This king resided at Iconium, the most eastern city of the kingdom of Phrygia at that time, and after his death, at the age of 300 years, a great flood overwhelmed the country, as had been foretold by an ancient oracle. The next king mentioned in extant classical sources was called Manis or Masdes. According to Plutarch, because of his splendid exploits, great things were called “manic” in Phrygia. Thereafter the kingdom of Phrygia seems to have become fragmented among various kings best running waist pack. One of the kings was Tantalus who ruled over the north western region of Phrygia around Mount Sipylus. Tantalus was endlessly punished in Tartarus, because he allegedly killed his son Pelops and sacrificially offered him to the Olympians, a reference to the suppression of human sacrifice. Tantalus was also falsely accused of stealing from the lotteries he had invented. In the mythic age before the Trojan war, during a time of an interregnum, Gordius (or Gordias), a Phrygian farmer, became king, fulfilling an oracular prophecy. The kingless Phrygians had turned for guidance to the oracle of Sabazios (“Zeus” to the Greeks) at Telmissus, in the part of Phrygia that later became part of Galatia. They had been instructed by the oracle to acclaim as their king the first man who rode up to the god’s temple in a cart. That man was Gordias (Gordios, Gordius) best running belt for water, a farmer, who dedicated the ox-cart in question, tied to its shaft with the “Gordian Knot”. Gordias refounded a capital at Gordium in west central Anatolia, situated on the old trackway through the heart of Anatolia that became Darius’s Persian “Royal Road” from Pessinus to Ancyra, and not far from the River Sangarius.

Later mythic kings of Phrygia were alternately named Gordias and Midas. Myths surround the first king Midas. connecting him with a mythological tale concerning Attis. This shadowy figure resided at Pessinus and attempted to marry his daughter to the young Attis in spite of the opposition of his lover Agdestis and his mother, the goddess Cybele. When Agdestis or Cybele appear and cast madness upon the members of the wedding feast. Midas is said to have died in the ensuing chaos.

The famous king Midas was said to be a son of the kind Gordius mentioned above. He is said to have associated himself with Silenus and other satyrs and with Dionysus, who granted him the famous “golden touch”.

The mythic Midas of Thrace, accompanied by a band of his people, traveled to Asia Minor to wash away the taint of his unwelcome “golden touch” in the river Pactolus. Leaving the gold in the river’s sands, Midas found himself in Phrygia, where he was adopted by the childless king Gordias and taken under the protection of Cybele. Acting as the visible representative of Cybele, and under her authority, it would seem, a Phrygian king could designate his successor.

According to the Iliad, the Phrygians were Trojan allies during the Trojan War. The Phrygia of Homer’s Iliad appears to be located in the area that embraced the Ascanian lake and the northern flow of the Sangarius river and so was much more limited in extent than classical Phrygia. Homer’s Iliad also includes a reminiscence by the Trojan king Priam, who had in his youth come to aid the Phrygians against the Amazons (Iliad 3.189). During this episode (a generation before the Trojan War), the Phrygians were said to be led by Otreus and Mygdon. Both appear to be little more than eponyms: there was a place named Otrea on the Ascanian Lake, in the vicinity of the later Nicaea; and the Mygdones were a people of Asia Minor, who resided near Lake Dascylitis (there was also a Mygdonia in Macedonia). During the Trojan War, the Phrygians sent forces to aid Troy, led by Ascanius and Phorcys, the sons of Aretaon. Asius, son of Dymas and brother of Hecabe best drink bottle, is another Phrygian noble who fought before Troy. Quintus Smyrnaeus mentions another Phrygian prince, named Coroebus, son of Mygdon, who fought and died at Troy; he had sued for the hand of the Trojan princess Cassandra in marriage. King Priam’s wife Hecabe is usually said to be of Phrygian birth, as a daughter of King Dymas.

The Phrygian Sibyl was the priestess presiding over the Apollonian oracle at Phrygia.

Herodotus, claims the priests of Hephaestus told him a story that the Egyptian pharaoh Psammetichus had two children raised in isolation in order to find the original language. The children were reported to have uttered bekos meaning “bread” in Phrygian. It was then acknowledged by the Egyptians that the Phrygians were a nation older than the Egyptians.

Josephus claimed the Phrygians were founded by the biblical figure Togarmah, grandson of Japheth and son of Gomer: “and Thrugramma the Thrugrammeans, who, as the Greeks resolved, were named Phrygians”.

After the collapse of the Hittite Empire at the beginning of the twelfth century BC, the political vacuum in central-western Anatolia was filled by a wave of Indo-European migrants and “Sea Peoples”, including the Phrygians, who established their kingdom with a capital eventually at Gordium. It is presently unknown whether the Phrygians were actively involved in the collapse of the Hittite capital Hattusa or whether they simply moved into the vacuum left by the collapse of Hittite hegemony. The so-called Handmade Knobbed Ware was found by archaeologists at sites from this period in Western Anatolia. According to Greek mythographers, the first Phrygian Midas had been king of the Moschi (Mushki), also known as Bryges (Brigi) in the western part of archaic Thrace.

Though the migration theory is still defended by many modern historians, most archaeologists have abandoned the migration hypothesis regarding the origin of the Phrygians due to a lack substantial archeological evidence, with the migration theory resting only on the accounts of Herodotus and Xanthus.

Assyrian sources from the 8th century BC speak of a king Mita of the Mushki, identified with king Midas of Phrygia. An Assyrian inscription records Mita as an ally of Sargon of Assyria in 709 BC. A distinctive Phrygian pottery called Polished Ware appears in the 8th century BC. The Phrygians founded a powerful kingdom which lasted until the Lydian ascendancy (7th century BC). Under kings alternately named Gordias and Midas, the independent Phrygian kingdom of the 8th and 7th centuries BC maintained close trade contacts with her neighbours in the east and the Greeks in the west. Phrygia seems to have been able to co-exist with whatever power was dominant in eastern Anatolia at the time.

The invasion of Anatolia in the late 8th century BC to early 7th century BC by the Cimmerians was to prove fatal to independent Phrygia. Cimmerian pressure and attacks culminated in the suicide of its last king, Midas, according to legend. Gordium fell to the Cimmerians in 696 BC and was sacked and burnt, as reported much later by Herodotus.

A series of digs have opened Gordium as one of Turkey’s most revealing archeological sites. Excavations confirm a violent destruction of Gordion around 675 BC. A tomb of the Midas period, popularly identified as the “Tomb of Midas” revealed a wooden structure deeply buried under a vast tumulus, containing grave goods, a coffin, furniture, and food offerings (Archaeological Museum, Ankara). The Gordium site contains a considerable later building program, perhaps by Alyattes, the Lydian king, in the 6th century BC.

Minor Phrygian kingdoms continued to exist after the end of the Phrygian empire, and the Phrygian art and culture continued to flourish. Cimmerian people stayed in Anatolia but do not appear to have created a kingdom of their own. The Lydians repulsed the Cimmerians in the 620s, and Phrygia was subsumed into a short-lived Lydian empire. The eastern part of the former Phrygian empire fell into the hands of the Medes in 585 BC.

Under the proverbially rich King Croesus (reigned 560–546 BC), Phrygia remained part of the Lydian empire that extended east to the Halys River. There may be an echo of strife with Lydia and perhaps a veiled reference to royal hostages, in the legend of the twice-unlucky Adrastus, the son of a King Gordias with the queen, Eurynome. He accidentally killed his brother and exiled himself to Lydia, where King Croesus welcomed him. Once again, Adrastus accidentally killed Croesus’ son and then committed suicide.

Lydian Croesus was conquered by Cyrus in 546 BC, and Phrygia passed under Persian dominion. After Darius became Persian Emperor in 521 BC, he remade the ancient trade route into the Persian “Royal Road” and instituted administrative reforms that included setting up satrapies (provinces). In the 5th century, Phrygia was made into two administrative provinces, that of Hellespontine Phrygia (or Lesser Phrygia), with its provincial capital established at Dascylium, and the province of Greater Phrygia.

Under Persian rule, the Phrygians seem to have lost their intellectual acuity and independence.[citation needed] Phrygians became stereotyped among later Greeks and the Romans as passive and dull. Phrygians remained subjects to the Hellenistic kingdoms that ruled the area and later to the Roman Empire, but the Phrygians retained their culture and their language until it became extinct in the 5th Century.

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Clarine Seymour

Clarine E. Seymour (December 9, 1898 – April 25, 1920) was an American silent film actress.

Seymour was the eldest of two children born to Albert V safest stainless steel water bottle. and Florence Seymour in Brooklyn, a wealthy couple who were devout Methodists. She had one younger brother. Albert Seymour ran a prosperous ribbon manufacturing business. Seymour began appearing in “entertainments” at the family’s church as a child. In early 1916, Albert Seymour became ill and was forced to close his business. The family moved to New Rochelle, New York where Seymour found work at the Thanhouser Film Company as a film extra to help support her family. While at Thanhouser fabric battery, she appeared in two shorts, Pots-and-Pans Peggy and It Happened to Adele. As a result of her work through that company, she obtained work through Pathé in a Pearl White serial.

In 1917, Seymour appeared in Pathé’s Mystery of the Double Cross opposite actress Mollie King. Hal Roach saw her performance and offered her a film contract with his Rolin Film Company. Seymour accepted and relocated to Los Angeles to perform as the leading lady in the Toto the Clown (played by Armando Novello) film comedy serials. Throughout 1918, she appeared in the Toto serial and also had a supporting role in the comedy short Just Rambling Along (1918), opposite Stan Laurel. The deal with Roach soon soured after Seymour claimed she was fired for refusing to do her own stunts. She filed suit against the company and was awarded $1,325 (approximately $21 professional football jerseys,000 today) in damages. While the case was pending, Seymour appeared in comedy shorts for Al Christie’s comedy shorts.

In 1918, Seymour met Victor Heerman. Heerman directed a screen test featuring Seymour and one of D.W. Griffith’s Artcraft stock company actors Robert Harron. Griffith was pleased with the pairing and with Seymour’s knack for light comedy and hired her as member of his stock company. Griffith cast Seymour with Harron, Richard Barthelmess and Carol Dempster in the drama The Girl Who Stayed at Home (1919). Although the film was not well received by critics, Seymour’s performance was and the public interest in her began to grow. Later that year, she was paired with Robert Harron again in True Heart Susie (1919) which also featured Lillian Gish. Seymour followed with role in Scarlet Days (1919), also opposite Richard Barthelmess and Carol Dempster. In 1920, Griffith cast Seymour in the lead role in The Idol Dancer. The film was not well received by audiences but they were taken by Seymour’s performance. Shortly after the film’s release, Seymour was featured on the cover of Motion Picture Magazine.

In early 1920 Griffith again cast Seymour, this time in Way Down East. Halfway through filming, on April 21, Seymour fell ill due to “intestinal strangulation”. She was taken to Misericordia Hospital in New York City for treatment but her condition did not improve. She underwent emergency surgery but died after developing pneumonia on April 25, 1920. Seymour is buried in Greenwood Union Cemetery in Rye, New York.

Actress Mary Hay was cast in Seymour’s role for Way Down East and her part was reshot. Footage of Seymour in long shots can be seen in the finished film. On September 26, a memorial service for Seymour, Ormer Locklear, Olive Thomas, and Robert Harron (who died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound two days after the premiere of Way Down East) was held at the Robert Brunton Studios. All four had died that year and were eulogized by director William Desmond Taylor glass water bottle that looks like plastic.

Marathon van Tokio 2012

De marathon van Tokio 2012 werd gelopen op zondag 26 februari 2012. Het was de zesde keer dat de marathon van Tokio was opengesteld voor zowel mannen als vrouwen. De Keniaan Michael Kipyego kwam als eerste over de streep in 2:07.37 en bleef hiermee de Japanner Arata Fujiwara slechts elf seconden voor. De voormalige wereldrecordhouder op deze afstand all metal water bottle, de Ethiopiër Haile Gebrselassie socks over football cleats, werd vierde in de wedstrijd running hip pack. Hij liep bij het 36 kilometerpunt weg bij zijn landgenoot Hailu Mekonne, maar werd vier kilometer voor de finish ingehaald door Kipyego.

De Ethiopische Atsede Habtamu won bij de vrouwen in 2:25.28. Ze verbeterde hiermee het parcoursrecord.

In totaal finishten er 34656 lopers, waarvan 27336 mannen en 7320 vrouwen best goalkeeper uniforms.

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Christian Eff

Christian Eff (2. august 1868 i Kolding – 6. februar 1953) var en dansk grosserer, godsejer og engelsk vicekonsul og han var aktiv i en række foreninger i Kolding. Han fik en vej i Kolding opkaldt efter sig i 1953.

Chr. Eff var søn af købmand Adolph Hansen (død 1891) og hustru Anna Frederikke f. Jordahn (død 1928) og tog købmandsborgerskab i Kolding 1892 og i København 1899. Sammen med grosserer Christian Faber oprettede han firmaet Chr. Faber & Co., som han var 1905 var eneindehaver af. Efter nogle år i København vendte han i 1906 tilbage til Kolding og byggede villa ”Hevea” pill fabric, Søgade 10, der var tegnet af Thorvald Gundestrup. Efter anlæggelsen af Danmarks første kafferisteri the best glass water bottle, blev hans væsentligste arbejdområde engroshandel med kaffe. Fra hans risterier leveredes kaffen til detailhandlerne. Han havde også interesser i en lang række andre virksomheder, foreninger og var desuden æresmedlem af en lang række andre foreninger. Chr. Eff var formand for Kolding Handelsstandsforening 1920-1938, og i perioden 1907-1951 var han engelsk vicekonsul.

Han blev indvalgt for Det Konservative Folkeparti i Kolding Byråd 1921, men udtrådte i 1923 pga clear waterproof bag. uoverensstemmelser. Ved byrådsvalget i 1925 opstillede han med sin egen liste og fik næsten lige så mange stemmer som Det Konservative Folkeparti og forsatte i byrådet til 1930, han fik ikke borgmesterposten, men dette gjorde i stedet Therchild Fischer-Nielsen fra hans nyoprettede liste jersey for football. Eff sad også i havneudvalget.

Eff var medlem af og 1. viceformand i bestyrelsen for Central­foreningen af jydske Handelsstandsfor­eninger 1902-37, af Provinshandelskammeret 1934-37 og af Forretningsudval­get for Den danske Handelsstands Fællesrepræsentation 1934-37, medlem af besty­relsen for Sammenslutningen af danske Havne 1921-30, formand i bestyrelsen for Akts. Kolding Laane- og Discontokasse, for Akts. Kaalunds Sæ­befabrikker, for Akts. P. Schøns Træ­lasthandel, for Akts. Kolding Korn, for Akts. Midtjysk Kafferisteri, Herning, for Akts. Hobro Kaffe-Risteri, Hobro, for Akts. Horsens Kaffe Kom­pagni, Horsens, for Akts. Vendsyssel Kaffe Kompagni, Hjørring, for Akts. Tønder Kafferisteri, Tønder og for Akts. Margarinefabrikken Alfa, medlem af bestyrelsen for Akts. Nicolai Outzen, Haderslev, for Fjerde Søforsikrings Sel­skab, København, for Akts. Strøyer & Mørch, København og for Akts. Bornholms Margarinefabrik, Rønne, æresmedlem af Kolding Handelsforening, af For­eningen af Haandværkere og Industridrivende i Kolding, af Kolding Herreds Landbrugsforening, af De danske Vaabenbrødres Kolding-afdeling, af selskabet De danske Forsvarsbrødre for Kolding og Omegn og af Kolding Sømandsforening.

Gustav Ritter von Kahr

Gustav Ritter von Kahr (29 November 1862 – 30 June 1934) was a German right-wing politician, active in the state of Bavaria. He was instrumental in the collapse and suppression of Adolf Hitler’s Beer Hall Putsch in 1923, and for those actions was murdered more than ten years later in the Night of the Long Knives.

Born in Weissenburg in Bayern, Kahr studied law and worked as a lawyer before entering politics. Politically, he was a monarchist and had links to the Catholic BVP, though he was a Protestant and never joined any party. In 1917, he became head of the provincial government of Upper Bavaria, but lost this post in the German Revolution of 1918.

After March 14, 1920, Kahr succeeded Johannes Hoffmann as Prime minister of Bavaria. Kahr came into office under military influences as a secondary result of the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch of March 13 in Berlin. The most powerful party in Bavaria, the BVP, was then in a state of much anxiety as a result of the experiences of Bolshevism, chaos, and violence through which Munich had passed in the spring of 1919. The ministry presided over by the socialist Hoffmann had succeeded in quelling Bolshevism with the aid of Republican troops from Prussia and Württemberg, but the great majority of the BVP, as well as liberals of various shades, not to speak of the monarchists and reactionaries, wanted further guarantees against a recurrence of the Bolshevist terror.

The Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch in Berlin gave the signal for political action in Munich waterproof pouch for swimming, and at a midnight sitting the Bavarian socialist ministry was somewhat unceremoniously hustled out of office — it is alleged under military pressure — and a coalition cabinet under Kahr installed. The coalition included reactionaries whose influence became more and more predominant. They were backed up by formerly liberal Bavarian journals which had been bought up by Prussian industrialists.

Kahr’s administration was essential in turning Bavaria into a “Ordnungszelle” (cell of order), giving room for all kinds of right-wing groups. He also supported separatist forces that aimed at Bavarian secession from Germany, but after the German government passed a decree for the protection of the Republic against right-wing extremists, Kahr resigned on 21 September 1921.

On 26 September 1923, following a period of turmoil with assassinations and political violence, Prime Minister Eugen von Knilling declared martial law and appointed Kahr, who had returned to his provincial post, as Staatskomissar (state commissioner) with dictatorial powers. Together with Bavarian State Police head Colonel Hans Ritter von Seisser, and Reichswehr General Otto von Lossow, he formed a triumvirate.

That year, many revolutionary groups wanted to emulate Mussolini’s “March on Rome” with a “March on Berlin.” Among these were the wartime General Erich Ludendorff and the Nazi (NSDAP) group, led by Adolf Hitler. Hitler decided to use Ludendorff as a figurehead in an attempt to seize power in what was later known as the “Hitler Putsch” or Beer Hall Putsch. Hitler and Ludendorff sought support of Kahr and his triumvirate. However, Kahr had his own plan with Seisser (Seißer) and Lossow to install a nationalist dictatorship without Hitler. Kahr warned the “patriotic associations” against independent action. Despite his misgivings over Hitler’s tactics, Kahr was every bit a right-wing patriot who stood against the Weimar government and believed action against those in Berlin was warranted. Akin to the later and infamous rhetoric of Hitler, Kahr remarked to an assembly of high-ranking officers on October 19, 1923 that the real matter at hand was “a great battle of two worldviews which will decide the destiny of the German people – the international Marxist-Jewish and the national Germanic.” Along this line, Kahr was not unlike many conservative Germans and his identification of perceived foreign threats is a defining feature of post-1918 German ideology; against which, it was widely believed, Germans had to make a stand. Accordingly, Kahr and his right-wing compatriots wanted to challenge the seeming cowardice of the extant government of Germany and eventually seize control since he found the Weimar Constitution and its leadership decidedly un-German in disposition.

Weighing on Kahr’s mind however, were injunctions from Berlin against reactionary activities. All the rage amid right-wing groups in Bavaria against the resumption of war-reparation payments did not temper the determination of the government in Berlin. The Weimar leadership’s staunch warnings against revolutionary activities included military intervention if necessary. Troops under the command of General von Seeckt (who ironically was previously identified among the right-wing circles as a possible choice for dictator) were poised and positioned for action. Stern warnings were reiterated by General von Seeckt, prompting the triumvirate of Kahr, Lossow, and Seisser to lose heart, at which point they informed the members of Kampfbund, (which was headed by Hitler) that they would determine when precipitate action would be taken. This did not sit well with Hitler.

Hitler was determined to act before the appeal of his agitation waned. So, on November 8, 1923, Hitler and the SA stormed a public meeting of 3,000 people that had been organized by Kahr in the Bürgerbräukeller, a large beer hall in Munich. Hitler interrupted Kahr’s speech and announced that the national revolution had begun, declaring the formation of a new government with Ludendorff. While waving his gun around, Hitler demanded the support of Kahr, Seisser, and Lossow. Hitler’s forces initially succeeded at occupying the local Reichswehr and police headquarters; however, neither the army nor the state police joined forces with Hitler. Kahr, Seisser, and Lossow were briefly detained but then released. The three quickly fled to join the opposition to Hitler. During the night, and unknown to Hitler, they prepared the resistance against the coup. The following day, Hitler and his followers marched from the beer hall to the Bavarian War Ministry to overthrow the Bavarian government as a prelude to their “March on Berlin”, but the police dispersed them. Sixteen NSDAP members and four police officers were killed in the failed coup. Kahr’s involvement in the collapse of Hitler’s putsch cost him the support of right-wing nationalist forces in Bavaria.

Kahr was forced to resign from his post as Staatskommissar on 16 February 1924, after Reichskanzler Wilhelm Marx had secretly met von Knilling on 18 January 1924 and convinced him to drop both von Kahr and von Lossow.

After this, Kahr served as President of the Bavarian law court for reviewing administrative acts and then, having sunk into relative obscurity, retired from public service three years later.

On June 30, 1934, during what became known as the Night of the Long Knives, Kahr was killed by Hitler’s forces for his “treason” during the Beer Hall Putsch. He was abducted from his Munich apartment and tortured by two SS members en route to the Dachau concentration camp. After his arrival there phone dry bag, Kahr was shot on orders of Theodor Eicke, the camp commandant. The murder was likely committed by Johann Kantschuster (de).

Regarding personal names: Ritter is a title, translated approximately as Sir (denoting a Knight), not a first or middle name. There is no equivalent female form.

Stac Lee

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Hébrides extérieures

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Royaume-Uni

Stac Lee, en écossais Stac Liath, en français « Stack gris » ou « Stack bleu », autrefois Stack-Ly, est une île écossaise de l’archipel de Saint-Kilda baignée par l’océan Atlantique. L’île est un stack, un rocher escarpé cerné par des falaises, culminant à 171,9 mètres d’altitude. Le rocher doit son nom au guano qui le recouvre en grande partie et provenant des milliers d’oiseaux marins qui y nidifient et qui forment avec Stac an Armin et Boreray la plus grande colonie de fous de Bassan du monde. Après Stac an Armin, Stac Lee est le plus haut stack marin du Royaume-Uni.

Stac Lee est une île européenne baignée par l’océan Atlantique Nord. Géographiquement, elle est située à l’ouest de l’Écosse et fait partie de l’archipel de Saint-Kilda, lui-même rattaché aux Hébrides extérieures football t shirt ideas, un des nombreux archipels des îles Britanniques. Administrativement, l’île fait partie des Hébrides extérieures, un des council area qui constituent l’Écosse et fait donc partie du Royaume-Uni.

Le rocher est situé dans le nord-est de l’archipel de Saint-Kilda, à environ 7,5 kilomètres au nord-est de Hirta, l’île principale de Saint-Kilda, et à 550 mètres à l’ouest du cap Ouest de l’île de Boreray.

Stac Lee est un stack, c’est-à-dire un rocher escarpé détaché du littoral par l’érosion, culminant à 171,9 mètres d’altitude soit 564 pieds, altitude souvent arrondie à 172 mètres, bien que d’autres sources mentionnent une altitude de 165 mètres soit 544 pieds, et à 220 mètres au-dessus du fond marin. C’est également un marilyn car la différence d’altitude entre la base du rocher et son sommet est supérieure à 150 mètres.

Vu du sud, le rocher se présente sous la forme d’une imposante falaise aussi large que haute avec un sommet en pointe tandis que vu de l’ouest, sa faible épaisseur lui donne l’aspect d’une mince aiguille dont le sommet est biseauté selon un angle de 45°. La vue réputée la plus impressionnante serait celle obtenue depuis le sud-est d’où Stac Lee prendrait la forme d’un « croc géant ».

Le climat de l’archipel, donc celui de Stac Lee, est typiquement océanique mais les côtes majoritairement constituées de falaises sont propices à la formation de brouillard et de nuages plus fréquents par rapport à la haute mer. La majorité des perturbations atmosphériques venant du sud-ouest, Stac Lee, non protégé de la haute mer par d’autres îles dans cette direction, est battu par les vagues et les vents qui soufflent la plupart du temps à force 3 au moins. Vagues et vents combinés sont propices à la formation et au transport des embruns qui détruisent la végétation sur les falaises et les côtes basses dont celles de Stac Lee.

Saint-Kilda est la première terre écossaise à recevoir les eaux de la dérive nord atlantique qui radoucissent les températures au regard du reste de l’Écosse et de la latitude de l’archipel. Le minima des moyennes des températures est atteint en janvier avec 5,6 °C tandis que le maxima est de 11,8 °C en juillet. Les précipitations sont quant à elles plus importantes que dans le reste de l’Écosse et atteignent 1 400 millimètres par an avec un maximum mensuel en décembre et janvier et un minimum en avril et juin.

Stac Lee est un des restes composés de gabbros cristallins qui formaient avec d’autres structures un ancien volcan érodé vieux de 55 millions d’années. La caldeira de ce volcan constitue la baie séparant Hirta de Boreray tandis que les différentes îles et stacks de l’archipel forment les rebords de cette dépression et d’autres cratères.

Malgré des avis contradictoires, il semblerait que les différentes calottes glaciaires présentes sur les îles Britanniques auraient recouvert Saint-Kilda et aurait permis par érosion la formation des nombreux stacks de l’archipel, dont Stac Lee.

Un million d’oiseaux de mer sont présents à Saint-Kilda et forment la majorité de la faune de l’archipel dont la plus grande colonie de fous de Bassan du monde avec 60 428 couples, la plus grande colonie de fulmars des îles Britanniques avec 66 942 couples, la plus grande colonie de macareux moines des îles Britanniques soit plus du quart de la population du Royaume-Uni avec 13 500 terriers soit 40 000 macareux, des guillemots, des mouettes, des petits pingouins et 228 espèces migratrices.

À lui seul, Stac Lee abrite des dizaines de milliers de fous de Bassan, les chiffres variant d’une source à l’autre : 17 042, 40 000 ou encore 60 000 individus. La présence de ces oiseaux, l’accumulation de leurs excréments et l’apport fréquent d’embruns salés font que Stac Lee est exempt de toute végétation.

Malgré des zones intertidales peu marquées et une mer agitée, la clarté des eaux et la forte concentration de plancton dans l’archipel permet la survie des espèces marines végétales et animales jusqu’à 45 mètres de profondeur contre 25 mètres en général sur la côte occidentale écossaise et dix à douze mètres en général sur la côte orientale écossaise. Cette vie maritime est représentée par des algues tels des varechs comme Mastocarpus stellatus, des fucus comme Fucus spiralis et Fucus distichus ou de kelp qui forment de véritable forêts sous-marines propices au refuge d’animaux comme des limaces de mer, des étoiles de mer, du corail mou, des bryozoaires, des hydres, etc. Les rochers sont également couverts d’anémones de mer et d’éponges et sont le lieu de vie de nombreux coquillages tels des patelles, des Cirripedia, des moules ou encore des chitons, des mollusques comme des escargots de mer, des crustacés comme des crabes. Au bout de la chaîne alimentaire se trouvent des mammifères tels des phoques, des cétacés comme des baleines de Minke et des poissons tels des requins pèlerins.

Les premiers habitants de Saint-Kilda sont arrivés au cours de la Préhistoire, aux alentours de 3 000 à 2 000 ans av. J.-C.. Il semble qu’ils aient très tôt su tirer parti des ressources qu’offraient la présence de milliers d’oiseaux de mer nichant dans les falaises dont celles de Stac Lee comme en témoigne l’écrivain écossais Martin Martin qui visite Saint-Kilda en 1697. Il rapporte que les 180 habitants de l’archipel capturent soit à la main, soit avec des pièges ou des filets des oiseaux pour la nourriture et collectent leurs œufs, des plumes et du guano sur les falaises des différentes îles et notamment celles de Boreray, Stac Lee et Stac an Armin. Pour ce faire, ils ont l’habitude de descendre le long des falaises à la recherche de nids mais sur Stac Lee, ils sont obligés d’y accéder par bateau et d’escalader les parois rocheuses ce qui les contraint à n’y envoyer que les personnes les plus expérimentées et les plus aguerries.

Martin mentionne aussi un abri en pierre construit sur les falaises de Stac Lee, à 120 mètres d’altitude et utilisé pour le logement de deux personnes lors de l’extraction du guano qui se déroulait durant les mois d’août et de septembre sur le rocher. Ces activités sur les falaises entraînent parfois des morts mais les habitants ayant acquis une grande agilité dans cette activité, les accidents sont relativement peu nombreux au regard des risques pris. Jusqu’au XIXe siècle, ces denrées collectées sur les falaises leur permettent de payer en nature leur loyer au propriétaire terrien et de les échanger avec des denrées venant du reste de l’Écosse. Lors des dernières années d’habitation permanente dans l’archipel dans les années 1900, 1910 et 1920, les œufs et autres objets ornithologiques sont vendus en tant que souvenirs aux touristes qui viennent à Saint-Kilda.

Les étrangers qui viennent à Saint-Kilda font en général une excursion en bateau à Boreray, Stac an Armin et Stac Lee pour y observer les très nombreux oiseaux. C’est le cas de Martin Martin qui approche le rocher par bateau en compagnie d’îliens ainsi que celui de George Washington Wilson, un célèbre photographe écossais qui visite Saint-Kilda dans les années 1880 et photographie entre autres Stac Lee.

En 1931, profitant du départ récent des derniers habitants de l’archipel dont les conditions de vie deviennent de plus en plus dures, le comte de Dumfries, qui a acquis l’archipel l’année précédente, décide de le transformer en sanctuaire pour la faune et la flore sauvage et de le léguer au National Trust for Scotland qui en obtient la gestion en 1957. Stac Lee, qui fait partie de l’archipel, subit le même sort. Ce classement en tant que réserve naturelle sera complété en 1986 avec l’inscription de l’archipel au patrimoine mondial de l’Unesco pour sa faune, notamment ornithologique, ses paysages et son passé.

Les différentes falaises de l’archipel ont fait l’objet de nombreuses ascensions no bpa water bottles, réussies ou non. Stac Lee a fait l’objet d’au moins deux escalades : une tentative infructueuse en 1898 par Norman Heathcote, un naturaliste, et sa sœur et la première réussie en 1969 qui est le fait d’un groupe de personnes. Mais la difficulté d’accès aux falaises, la dangerosité des ascensions, l’absence de secours dans l’archipel et les perturbations provoquées par les grimpeurs sur les nichées des oiseaux ont contraint le National Trust for Scotland et le Scottish Natural Heritage à interdire l’escalade des falaises y compris celles de Stac Lee sauf autorisation de leur part.

Stac Lee est aussi réputé pour ses sites de plongée sous-marine caractérisés par une eau très claire et par des paysages composés de falaises et de grottes noyées. Ces sites de plongée sont néanmoins très techniques et nécessitent d’apporter son propre équipement du fait de l’absence de lieu de location de matériel dans l’archipel.

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Mohammad Toaha

Mohammad Toaha (2 January 1922 – 29 November 1987) was a language activist of the 1952 language movement and a prominent left wing politician from Bangladesh.

Toaha was born on 2 January 1922 at Hajirhat village in Ramgati of Lakshmipur District. He finished his matriculation under Calcutta University in 1939. Later he received his MA in political science in 1948.

Toaha participated as an activist in Sylhet Referendum under Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani in 1946.In 1947 he launched the East Pakistan Students Federation, the earliest left wing student organisation in East Bengal. He was associated with the floating of Awami Muslim League in 1949.

Toaha was first active during the initial stages of the Bengali Language Movement. On 11 March 1948, when a team led by Toaha went to Secretariat to give Khawaja Nazimuddin a memorandum, police arrested him shaver for clothes. Later he was tortured by them and had to spend a week in the hospital for recovery. As one of the leaders of the Rashtrabhasha Shangram Committee (State Language Committee of Action), Toaha was used to take part in all the meeting with the government. He was also the VP of the Fazlul Haque Hall of Dhaka University. When Mohammad Ali Jinnah went there, Toaha submitted a memorandum to him about their language demand. He was also vocal at the government’s attempt to write Bengali in Arabic script. He was the correspondent of Jubo League at Shorbodolio Kendrio Rashtrabhasha Kormoporishod (All-party Central Language Committee of Action). Later part of 1952, he was arrested for attachments in student politics.

After his release in 1954, he took part in the election that the United Front won. There he was elected as a member of the Provincial Assembly. In 1956 he floated a labour organization styled as Purba Pakistan Majdur Federation and was elected its president italian glass water bottle. In 1957, Toaha was associated with the National Awami Party of Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani and was later elected its general secretary. With the promulgation of martial law by Ayub Khan in 1958, Toaha receded to underground politics waterproof case for smartphone. In 1969 he became one of the organizers of the anti-Ayub movement.

See also: Bangladesh Liberation War
Toaha along with communists Sukhendu Dastider and Abdul Haq of the East Pakistan Communist Party (Marxist–Leninist) refused to participate in the liberation war for Bangladesh.

After the independence of Bangladesh water bottle for jogging, a warrant was issued against him and he went into hiding. After the withdrawal of warrant in 1976 he came back to open politics. He was elected a member of the Jatiya Sangsad in 1979. In 1986, Toaha contested in the Jatiya Sangsad election as a nominee of 8-Party alliance.

Toaha died on 29 November 1987 at his native village of Hajirhat, Lakshmipur District.