Raj B meat tenderising. Vattikuti (Founder)
Tim Manney (President & Global CFO)
Raj Sundaresan (Global COO)
Ravi Palaniappan (President, India Operations)
Madhavan Satagopan (Chief Technology Officer)
Vamsi Krishna Vinjamuri ( Chief Marketing Officer)
Arvind Ramachandra (Chief Architect)
Dave Rocco (Global Project Delivery )
Asha Poluru (Chief People Experience (HR) (2012-2016))
Srikant Subramanian (Business Head – International)
Ravi Ravichandran (Business Unit Head West Coast (USA))
Atul Kumar (Business Unit Head -East coast (USA))
Bob Sundar (Business Unit Head Mid-West (USA))

Altimetrik was founded by Raj Vattikuti and is part of the Vattikuti Ventures. Raj Vattikuti is also the founder of Covansys, a technology and outsourcing company in India which was acquired by CSC in 2007 for 1.3 bn USD.

Altimetrik is headquartered in Michigan, USA with presence across several countries. Their main focus areas are Healthcare, Banking & Financial services, Payments, Retail, Telecom, Manufacturing and Hospitality. Altimetrik follows a design-led engineering approach for software development and they assemble and engineer their solutions & platforms in India and Uruguay.

Altimetrik’s “capability centres” are built around Customer Experience, User Experience & Design, Enterprise Cloud, Platforms & Solutions, Information Visualization, Information Engineering, Any-Device Computing and Quality Engineering.

Altimetrik was founded by Raj B. Vattikuti in 2012. Altimetrik initially acquired Thinkways, Enteg and Timba, which assisted the company to develop its financial inclusion and digital health platforms.

Altimetrik is headquartered in Southfield, Michigan, USA. The solutions and platforms are engineered in their offices in Princeton (USA), Bangalore (India), Chennai (India) and Montevideo (Uruguay). Altimetrik has six “Development Centres” located in – Chennai (two), Bangalore (two) and one each in Uruguay and USA. Altimetrik’s client base includes Banking, e-commerce, Payments, Healthcare and Retail cleat socks.

Ostrobotnia (provincia storica)

L’Ostrobotnia (Pohjanmaa in finlandese, Österbotten in svedese), è una provincia storica della Finlandia.

Il significato del suo nome in svedese indica la sua posizione geografica, ovvero la parte orientale del Golfo di Botnia. Essa comprende le seguenti regioni attuali della Finlandia: Ostrobotnia (regione costiera), Ostrobotnia meridionale, Ostrobotnia centrale, Ostrobotnia settentrionale, Kainuu; in più include la parte meridionale della regione della Lapponia. La parte nord-occidentale della regione storica dell’Ostrobotnia, la cosiddetta regione di Salla-Kuusamo fu ceduta all’Unione Sovietica nel 1940 e nuovamente nel 1944 e fa parte tuttora della Russia. I confini dell’Ostrobotnia erano a ovest il Golfo di Botnia, a nord la parte di Lapponia che oggigiorno arriva fino alla città di Sodankylä e a sud le regioni di Satakunta, Häme e Savo.

Nel 1634 la regione storica dell’Ostrobotnia venne organizzata come provincia (län) del regno svedese. Nel 1775 tale provincia venne scorporata e inclusa nelle province di Vaasa e Oulu.

L’Ostrobotnia nella sua estensione storica è comunque una regione geograficamente omogenea a prescindere dalle piccole difference locali what can i use to tenderize steak. Il paesaggio è composto da estese pianure divise da fiumi. Solo nella parte nord-orientale si iniziano a intravedere i rilievi collinari tipi della regione lappone.

L’insediamento umano nell’Ostrobotnia è iniziato nell’età della pietra, quando gli spostamenti umani avvenivano principalmente per vie fluviali. Già nell’età del ferro gli insediamenti nell’area si ipotizza siano stati di persone di lingua finlandese o sami, sebbene alcuni ricercatori ritengono tuttora probabile che la fiorente cultura della regione di Vaasa, nel periodo delle migrazioni e nel periodo merovingio, fosse almeno parzialmente germanica. È possibile che l’enigmatico nome di origine scandinava kveenit possa riferirsi agli abitanti dell’Ostrobotnia stainless steel lemon juicer. È stato infatti ipotizzato che il nome con cui l’Ostrobotnia era precedentemente chiamata fosse proprio Kvenland (in finlandese Kainuunmaa).

Al momento non è sicuro se la regione è stata abitata permanentemente a partire dall’età del ferro. I ritrovamenti archeologici relativi alla tarda età del ferro nella regione sono scarsi. Per questa ragione molti ricercatori suppongono che l’Ostrobotnia si sia spopolata nel IX secolo buy glass bottled water, diventando nuovamente un’area disabitata da insediare, e che si sia ripopolata a partire dall’XI-XII secolo.

Anche gli abitanti delle regioni del Pirkanmaa e della Carelia hanno lasciato tracce nella popolazione dell’Ostrobotnia. La popolazione di lingua svedese presente oggigiorno nella regione si suppone si sia stabilita nell’Ostrobotnia meridionale intorno al XIII secolo, e successivamente si sia estesa lungo la costa verso nord, fino all’altezza della città di Kokkola. Periodi successivi hanno visto l’immigrazione anche dalle regioni dell’Häme e del Savo.


De LUX-prijs voor Europese film is een filmprijs die jaarlijks door het Europees Parlement wordt uitgereikt. De prijs heeft als doel de Europese film in de Europese Unie te verspreiden.

Sinds 2007 wil het Europees Parlement met de LUX-prijs de Europese film onder de aandacht brengen. Het Europees Parlement ziet de film als ideaal middel om het debat over Europa en haar toekomst te stimuleren. Bovendien wil het Europees Parlement op deze manier de Europese filmindustrie stimuleren.

De officiële selectie wordt gedaan door een 21-koppige “Selection Panel”, bestaande uit producenten, distributeurs, bioscoop- en festivaldirecteuren, filmcritici, en vertegenwoordigers van de Europese Commissie en Eurimages. De Commissie Cultuur en Onderwijs van het Europees Parlement benoemt de panelleden en vervangt ieder jaar een derde van de leden glass liter bottles. Ook is een vertegenwoordiger van de winnende film van het vorige jaar ex officio lid van het panel stainless steel cycling water bottle.

De films die in aanmerking komen om geselecteerd te worden worden aangedragen door het Selection Panel, maar kunnen ook worden voorgedragen door leden van het Europees Parlement of door spontane aanmelding uit de filmindustrie pink stainless steel water bottle.

Uiteindelijk kiest het Selection Panel de drie films voor de officiële selectie, ofwel de competitie. In november wordt, na verschillende vertoningen van de drie films how to tenderize meat quickly, door de leden van het Europees Parlement de winnende film door stemming gekozen, waarna de voorzitter van het Europees Parlement de winnaar in de plenaire vergadering in Straatsburg bekendmaakt.

Maie Bartlett Heard

Maie Bartlett Heard (1868-1951) was an Arizona-based collector and philanthropist who was the co-founder of the Heard Museum of native American art running pocket belt.

Born on June 11, 1868, in Chicago, to parents Adolphus C. Bartlett and Mary Pitkin. Her father was the president of the Hibbard Spencer Bartlett & Company, which would later become True Value Hardware. Through her father’s company she met her husband, Dwight B. Heard. Dwight and Maie married in 1893 and in 1895 they made the decision to move out West due to issues with Dwight’s health, finally settling in Phoenix, Arizona. Dwight became a successful businessman in Phoenix, as he chose to invest in land, as well as raise crops and livestock. Seventeen years after moving to Phoenix he purchased the Arizona Republican newspaper, which would later become the Arizona Republic meat tenderizer seasoning. Maie’s sister Florence Dibell Bartlett was also a collector of art and in particular textiles, who donated her collection to the Museum of International Folk Art in New Mexico.

Dwight and Maie built their 6,000 square foot home, Casa Blanca, in what is now northern Phoenix. Dwight and Maie took an interest in politics and would often host political events at their home. Invited guests included not only local political figures and businessmen including Marshall Field and Harvey S. Firestone, but better known politicians such as Theodore Roosevelt and Herbert Hoover. In their decision to play an active part in their community, the Heards found a love of collecting Native American artifacts. In 1926 the Heards purchased a Hohokam ruin called La Cuidad. Many of the pieces from this site comprised Maie’s initial collection and fueled the fire for her love of Native American artifacts that would continue until her death in 1951. Their collection eventually outgrew the space available in Casa Blanca, so they decided to design and build a museum nearby to hold their vast collection. Unfortunately Dwight Heard died only months before the Heard Museum opened in June 1929. Maie’s passion continued for the next two decades running waist band, as she introduced the Native American culture to visitors of the museum. As the museum curator and director, she continued to search for additional pieces to add to the collection and would personally give tours and lectures on the history and culture of the Native Americans whose art was housed within the museum. The museum itself is now 130,000 square feet, almost 8 times the size of the original museum in 1929, and is recognized internationally for it extensive collections, exhibits and festivals.

While her love of Native American artifacts was her passion, as a philanthropist Maie also played an active part in giving back to her community. She and other members of the Phoenix Women’s Club worked to raise money for a library to be built in their city. In 1908 the Carnegie Library opened. Maie and other members of the Bartlett family also donated 6.5 acres that would be the home of the Civic Center House as well as the YWCA gymnasium. The civic center would later become the Phoenix Art Museum. Maie was also instrumental in the development of the Phoenix Little Theater. In 1924 Dwight and Maie donated the carriage house at Casa Blanca to the performing troupe, who would continue to hold their performances there through 1951.

Maie and other influential women from the Phoenix area attended a speech by Margaret Sanger, who shared that Arizona was second in the nation with respect to deaths of infants and mothers. Their hard work resulted in the opening of the Mother’s Heath Clinic of Phoenix on October 1, 1937. Birth control and options for family planning were now available to married women regardless of their ability to pay for services rendered. This facility would later become the Planned Parenthood of Central and Northern Arizona.

The Phoenix Rotary Club recognized Maie’s significant contributions to the children of Phoenix in May 1948. Later that year Beta Sigma Phi honored her as well with the title of Arizona Woman of the Year glass bottle art. Maie Heard Elementary School in Phoenix was named after her, and honors her love of reading and community involvement.

Maie died exactly 22 years after her husband Dwight’s death, on March 14, 1951. She was 83 years old.  

HMAS Mavie

HMAS Mavie was a 19-ton auxiliary patrol boat operated by the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) during World War II.

The wooden lugger Mavie was built at Fremantle, Western Australia in 1903. It was 38 feet 6 inches (11.73 m) long goalkeeper shirts for sale, with a beam of 11 feet 11 inches (3.63&nbsp design custom football uniforms;m).

On 12 December 1941, Mavie was seized from its Japanese owner, Jiro Muramats, as he was a citizen of a country at war with Australia. It was requisitioned by the RAN, and was renamed and commissioned for service at Darwin as the channel patrol boat HMAS Mavie, on 31 December 1941.

Mavie was attacked by Japanese aircraft in the air raids on Darwin on 19 February 1942 roma football shirt, near the Stokes Hill Wharf in Darwin Harbour. Mavie was sunk by a near miss, although the crew of four survived. Mavie was salvaged in 1959–60 when the Fujita Salvage Company salvaged the cargo ship Neptuna, which had also been sunk in the raid.

Following a reorganisation of the RAN battle honours system thermos insulated water bottle with straw, Mavies service and loss was retroactively recognised with the honour “Darwin 1942”.


Géolocalisation sur la carte : Essonne

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Essonne

Géolocalisation sur la carte : France

Géolocalisation sur la carte : France

Morsang-sur-Orge (prononcé [mɔʁsɑ̃ syʁ ɔʁʒ]  Écouter) est une commune française située à vingt-trois kilomètres au sud de Paris dans le département de l’Essonne en région Île-de-France. Elle est le chef-lieu du canton de Morsang-sur-Orge.

Simple village dépendant de l’abbaye Saint-Magloire de Paris aux alentours de l’an mil, devenue seigneurie de divers bourgeois parisiens, la commune évolua à partir du XXe siècle avec les carrière de meulière et la construction de demeures bourgeoises puis le lotissement de l’ancienne forêt de Séquigny, lui donnant sa physionomie actuelle de banlieue résidentielle au sud de la capitale.

Ses habitants sont appelés les Morsaintois philishave electric shavers.

Morsang-sur-Orge est située dans la région Île-de-France, au nord-est du département de l’Essonne, elle est intégrée à l’agglomération parisienne et incluse dans la région du Hurepoix. La commune occupe un territoire totalisant 439 hectares dont plus de 95 % relevaient de l’espace urbain et moins de 4 % de l’espace rural. L’Institut national de l’information géographique et forestière attribue les coordonnées géographiques 48°39’08″ N et 02°21’18″ E au point central de ce territoire. L’Orge borde le territoire au nord, donnant son nom à la commune. Elle creuse une vallée dans laquelle se trouve une partie de la commune, dominée par un plateau accueillant les quartiers plus récents. Cette vallée est coupée par le tracé de l’autoroute A6 qui passe au nord-est du territoire communal, complétée par un réseau de routes départementales permettant une desserte relativement dense des lignes de bus. Elles desservent les différents quartiers qui constituent la commune dont les secteurs pavillonnaires typiques de la banlieue parisienne.

Morsang-sur-Orge est située à vingt-trois kilomètres au sud de Paris-Notre-Dame, point zéro des routes de France, sept kilomètres à l’est d’Évry, six kilomètres à l’est de Montlhéry, dix kilomètres au nord-ouest de Corbeil-Essonnes, dix kilomètres au nord-est d’Arpajon, onze kilomètres au sud-est de Palaiseau, dix-huit kilomètres au nord de La Ferté-Alais, vingt-huit kilomètres au nord-est d’Étampes, vingt-neuf kilomètres au nord-ouest de Milly-la-Forêt, vingt-neuf kilomètres au nord-est de Dourdan.

Le nord du territoire est limité par le cours de la rivière l’Orge, où elle est bordée par un lac séparé en deux parties dans le parc du Séminaire. Un bassin de rétention des eaux pluviales a été aménagé au nord de l’autoroute A6.

La commune de Morsang-sur-Orge est implantée sur le plateau du Hurepoix et le versant sud de la vallée de l’Orge. Son altitude varie entre un point bas à 36 mètres et un point haut à 81 mètres. Le point le plus bas est situé en bordure de la rivière au nord, à la frontière avec Savigny-sur-Orge, le point culminant est lui situé à l’extrémité sud de la commune sur le plateau, le centre-ville à mi-distance est lui situé à une altitude de 60 mètres. Le sous-sol est typique du Bassin parisien avec une succession de couches de sable, de calcaire, d’argile et de marne.

La rivière l’Orge matérialise la frontière au nord avec la commune voisine de Savigny-sur-Orge, au nord-est et à l’est, les rues Diderot, du Docteur-Roux, l’avenue du Commandant-Barré pink plastic water bottle, la voie de Compiègne, l’avenue des Bouleaux et l’avenue du Pavillon marquent la frontière avec Viry-Châtillon, au sud-est se trouve Fleury-Mérogis, au sud et au sud-ouest Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois séparée par l’avenue Jean-Moulin, à l’ouest et au nord-ouest Villemoisson-sur-Orge, dont la limite est faite par la route de Corbeil.

Morsang-sur-Orge est située en Île-de-France et bénéficie d’un climat océanique dégradé aux hivers frais et aux étés doux, en étant régulièrement arrosée sur l’ensemble de l’année. En moyenne brute annuelle, la température s’établit à 10,8 °C, avec une moyenne maximale de 15,2 °C et une moyenne minimale à 6,4 °C. Les températures moyennes mensuelles extrêmes relevées sont de 24,5 °C en juillet au maximum et 0,7 °C en janvier au minimum, mais les records enregistrés s’établissent à 38,2 °C le et −19,6 °C le . Du fait de la moindre densité urbaine entre Paris et sa banlieue, une différence négative de un à deux degrés Celsius se fait sentir, surtout en début de journée. L’ensoleillement est comparable à la moyenne des régions du nord de la Loire avec un total de 1 798 heures par an, une moyenne haute à deux cent quarante heures en juillet et basse à cinquante-trois heures en décembre. Les précipitations sont également réparties sur l’année, avec un total annuel de 598,3 millimètres de pluie et une moyenne approximative de cinquante millimètres par mois.

Elle est aussi parcourue au nord par la route départementale 77 et se trouve bordée à l’ouest par la route départementale 117 qui prend l’appellation de route de Corbeil. Aucune voie ferrée ne passe sur le territoire communal, les gares les plus proches se trouvent dans les communes voisines de Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois, Saint-Michel-sur-Orge, Épinay-sur-Orge et Savigny-sur-Orge, toutes desservies par la ligne C du RER d’Île-de-France. Plusieurs lignes de transports en commun routier sillonnent toutefois le territoire, dont la ligne 420 du réseau de bus Transports intercommunaux Centre Essonne, les lignes DM3, DM8, DM21 du réseau de bus Daniel Meyer, la ligne 103, 107 et 108 du réseau de bus Veolia-Transdev CEAT. La commune est en outre située à sept kilomètres au sud de l’aéroport de Paris-Orly et à quarante et un kilomètres au sud-ouest de l’aéroport de Paris-Charles-de-Gaulle.

Le vieux bourg est, comme son nom l’indique, le quartier ancien de la ville. Il est constitué d’un château, de son parc ainsi que de vieilles bâtisses. Plusieurs autres quartiers historiques sont répartis sur le territoire dont la Gribelette au sud, le Plateau au centre, collé au parc Hendès à l’est et Monjardin au nord.

L’un des quartiers caractéristiques de Morsang-sur-Orge est le parc Beauséjour. Au début du XXe siècle, la mode des villas en tant que résidences secondaires était en plein essor. C’est ainsi que ce parc résidentiel a vu le jour. Non loin de la capitale, il permettait aux Parisiens de venir y passer leurs week-ends.

Ce quartier est composé aussi bien de grands pavillons, que de plus petits. À l’époque, la volonté était de permettre également aux classes moyennes d’avoir accès aux villas. Le bâtiment qui symbolise au mieux le parc Beauséjour est le château d’Orgeval (sur la commune de Villemoisson-sur-Orge), dont l’architecte n’est autre que Hector Guimard, auteur des fameuses bouches du métropolitain parisien.

En 1998, un découpage en huit quartiers a été opéré afin de mettre en place un exercice de démocratie participative basé sur des comités de quartiers. Pour plus de simplicité, ce découpage s’est fait selon la sectorisation des établissements scolaires. Ainsi, les huit quartiers de Morsang-sur-Orge portent le nom des écoles élémentaires autour desquelles ils se sont constitués (Wallon, Jaurès, Buisson, Cachin, Langevin, Courbet, Robespierre et Curie).

L’Insee découpe la commune en huit îlots regroupés pour l’information statistique soit Wallon, la Guérinière, le Vieux bourg, le Bois pommier, Compiègne, Beauséjour, le Marché, la Gribelette.

Le lieu est attesté sous la forme Murcinctus en 997 – 999 puis Morseng et Murcenc au XIIe siècle lint razor. Il est issu d’un type toponymique bas latin Murocinctus (cf. Morsain, Aisnes, Murocinctus en 879 qui signifie « ceint de murs », plus tard, le nom est mentionné sous les formes Morcent, Murcent en 1159, Meurcentum en 1268 et finalement Morsang, graphie non étymologique. La commune fut créée en 1793 avec son nom actuel.

Des armes et outils datant de l’Âge de la pierre ont été mis au jour lors de l’extraction de la meulière dans la région. À l’époque de la Gaule romaine, le village était à l’écart des voies romaines reliant Lutèce à Lugdunum à l’est et à Cenabum à l’ouest.

La première mention du lieu remonte à la donation faite par Hugues Capet à l’abbaye Saint-Magloire de Paris en 980. En 1159 le lieu fut cité sous le nom de Murcent, traduisant la présence d’un mur d’enceinte autour du village. Une église dédiée à saint Jean a été édifiée au XIIIe siècle.

En 1564 le domaine fut cédé à la famille de la Raguenière et comprenait un manoir au nord et la vaste forêt de Séquigny au sud. Une chapelle dédiée à saint Charles fut édifiée au XVIIe siècle. En 1616, la seigneurie revint à la famille Vassan.

Au XVIIIe siècle, le village était organisé autour du château, de la ferme et d’un troisième site, reliés entre eux par une route menant à l’importante route de Corbeil, la principale activité agricole d’alors était la viticulture. En 1739, le fermier général Pierre Durey d’Harnoncourt acheta la seigneurie de Morsang et y fit construire en 1740 le château de Morsang. Il revint à son gendre Louis Bénigne François Berthier de Sauvigny, premier président du Parlement de Paris qui le conserva jusqu’à son décès en 1789.

En 1848 fut construite la mairie-école. À partir du XIXe siècle, le village évolua avec l’ouverture de carrières de meulière, des maisons bourgeoises furent édifiées dans ce qui était alors un village-rue, complétées dès le début du XXe siècle par des lotissements pavillonnaires. Une nouvelle mairie-école fut inaugurée en 1921, la précédente devenant un bureau de Poste. En 1955 fut inaugurée un second lieu de culte catholique dans la commune. En 1975, la commune devint chef-lieu de son canton.

Lors du premier recensement des personnes réalisé en 1793, le village de Morsang-sur-Orge ne dénombrait que trois cent vingt-cinq habitants. La croissance démographique fut lente et progressive pour ne dépasser le cap des cinq cents résidents qu’en 1861 et franchir la barre symbolique des mille habitants au tout début du XXe siècle, avant un léger fléchissement. À partir des années 1920, comme beaucoup de communes de la banlieue parisienne, la croissance démographique s’accéléra avec l’installation de nouveaux résidents dans les secteurs pavillonnaires, la commune atteignant plus de trois mille six cents habitants en 1936, dépassant les cinq mille résidents en 1954 et connaissant un triplement de sa population durant les années 1960 avant un ralentissement de la progression pour se stabiliser aux alentours de vingt mille habitants depuis les années 1970, avec un pic démographique atteint en 2006 à 21 717 habitants. L’immigration compte pour une part relativement faible dans cette croissance démographique puisqu’en 1999, seulement 8,7 % de la population de la commune était étrangère, avec notamment 4,64 % de Portugais, 1,05 % d’Algériens, 0,63 % d’Italiens, 0,53 % de Marocains, 0,36 % d’Espagnols, 0,20 % de Turcs et 0,12 % de Tunisiens.

L’évolution du nombre d’habitants est connue à travers les recensements de la population effectués dans la commune depuis 1793. À partir du milieu des années 2000, les populations légales des communes sont publiées annuellement. Le recensement repose désormais sur une collecte d’information annuelle, concernant successivement tous les territoires communaux au cours d’une période de cinq ans. Pour les communes de plus de 10 000 habitants les recensements ont lieu chaque année à la suite d’une enquête par sondage auprès d’un échantillon d’adresses représentant 8 % de leurs logements, contrairement aux autres communes qui ont un recensement réel tous les cinq ans uniform express football.

En 2014, la commune comptait 21 428 habitants, en augmentation de 2,65 % par rapport à 2009 (Essonne : 4,75 % , France hors Mayotte : 2,49 %)

La pyramide des âges de Morsang-sur-Orge se distingue relativement de celle du département de l’Essonne, notamment par une présence légèrement plus importante du nombre de résidents de moins de 14 ans et de ceux entre trente et soixante ans, mais corollairement une moindre représentation des habitants entre quinze et vingt-neuf ans. La répartition par sexes est aussi quelque peu différente avec une moindre représentation des hommes de plus de quatre-vingt-dix ans et une moindre représentation des femmes entre soixante-quinze et quatre-vingt-dix ans et de moins de quinze ans. En 1999, 31,7 % de la population était âgée de moins de vingt-cinq ans.

La commune de Morsang-sur-Orge est intégrée au canton de Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois, représenté par les conseillers départementaux Frédéric Petitta (PS) et Marjolaine Rauze (PCF), à l’arrondissement d’Évry et à la dixième circonscription de l’Essonne, représentée par le député Malek Boutih (PS). Le maire Marjolaine Rauze (PCF) préside un conseil municipal composé de trente-cinq élus dont vingt-sept pour la majorité divers gauche et huit pour l’opposition centriste. Elle est assistée dans ses fonctions par neuf maires-adjoints et sept conseillers municipaux délégués. L’Insee attribue à la commune le code 91 2 31 434. La commune de Morsang-sur-Orge est enregistrée au répertoire des entreprises sous le code SIREN 219 104 346. Son activité est enregistrée sous le code APE 8411Z.

En 2011, la commune disposait d’un budget de 32 820 000 € dont 22 748 000 € de fonctionnement et 10 072 000 € d’investissement, financés à 43,59 % par les impôts locaux avec des taux d’imposition fixés en 2010 à 17,98 % pour la taxe d’habitation, 19,83 % et 82,89 % pour la taxe foncière sur le bâti et le non-bâti et 27,86 % pour la cotisation foncière des entreprises fixée par l’intercommunalité. En 2011, l’endettement municipal s’élevait à 27 964 000 €. Cette même année, la commune disposait sur son territoire de 1 977 logements de type HLM répartis entre neuf bailleurs sociaux, soit 25 % du parc total de logement, au-dessus des recommandations de la Loi relative à la solidarité et au renouvellement urbains.

La commune est membre fondateur de la communauté d’agglomération du Val d’Orge à laquelle elle a délégué les compétences de développement économique, d’aménagement du territoire, d’équilibre social de l’habitat, de politique de la ville, de protection de l’environnement, de gestion des ordures ménagères, de traitement des eaux usées, de gestion des transports en commun et de gestion des équipements culturels et sportifs. Elle adhère aussi au syndicat mixte Orge-Yvette-Seine, au syndicat mixte de la Vallée de l’Orge Aval et au syndicat mixte pour la revalorisation et l’élimination des déchets et ordures ménagères.

Trente et un maires se sont succédé à la tête de l’administration municipale depuis l’élection du premier en 1792. Particularité dans le département, la commune est représentée depuis 1953 par une femme maire.

Conseillère générale du canton de Morsang-sur-Orge (1998-2015), puis Conseillère départementale du Canton de Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois depuis 2015

Dirigée depuis les années 1960 par un maire communiste, la commune est politiquement marquée à gauche comme en témoignent les résultats électoraux avec systématiquement la victoire des candidats de gauche aux élections, sauf en 2007, où le candidat UMP à la présidentielle Nicolas Sarkozy arrivé en tête dans la commune comme sur le reste du territoire national et en 2009 où la liste UMP pour le scrutin européen se plaça là aussi en tête. Le maire communiste a été réélu dès le premier tour en 2008 avec plus de 60 % des suffrages, elle est aussi conseillère général du canton, élue là encore avec plus de 60 % des voix aux deuxièmes tours en 2004 et en 2011. Comme en 1992 où les électeurs Morsaintois avaient rejeté le traité de Maastricht à 51,83 % des voix, ils ont rejeté le traité de Rome en 2005. Une section du Parti socialiste est implantée dans la commune.

Élections présidentielles, résultats des deuxièmes tours :

Élections législatives, résultats des deuxièmes tours :

Élections européennes, résultats des deux meilleurs scores :

Élections régionales, résultats des deux meilleurs scores :

Élections cantonales, résultats des deuxièmes tours :

Élections municipales, résultats des deuxièmes tours :

Référendums :

Les élèves de Morsang-sur-Orge sont rattachés à l’académie de Versailles. La commune dispose sur son territoire de l’école élémentaire Jean-Jaurès et des écoles primaire Louis-Pergaud, Ferdinand-Buisson, Marcel-Cachin, Paul-Langevin, Irène-Joliot-Curie, Henri-Wallon[Lequel ?], Gustave-Courbet et Maximilien-de-Robespierre, des collèges Charles-Péguy et Jean-Zay et du lycée professionnel André-Marie-Ampère. Pour l’accueil des jeunes enfants, la commune dispose des crèches Eugénie-Cotton et Les Écureuils, les plus âgés sont accueillis hors temps scolaires dans les centres de loisirs Robespierre, du Château, Ferdinand-Buisson et de la Source et à la ludothèque.

La commune dispose sur son territoire de l’établissement d’hébergement pour personnes âgées dépendantes la Maison des Merisiers. Un centre de la protection maternelle et infantile est implanté dans la commune, complété par un centre de planification familiale. Vingt-neuf médecins, huit chirurgiens-dentistes et quatorze pharmaciens 7 pharmaciens exercent dans la commune et non pas 14.

La commune dispose sur son territoire de deux agences postales. La sécurité de la commune est assurée par le commissariat de police nationale de Juvisy-sur-Orge et par le centre de secours principal de Grigny. Une antenne de la Caisse primaire d’assurance maladie. Cinq avocats et un notaire exercent dans la commune. L’organisation juridictionnelle rattache les justiciables de la commune au tribunal d’instance de Juvisy-sur-Orge, au tribunal de grande instance, au conseil de prud’hommes et au tribunal de commerce d’Évry, tous dépendant de la cour d’appel de Paris.

La commune de Morsang-sur-Orge n’a développé aucune association de jumelage.

La commune de Morsang-sur-Orge dispose sur son territoire de plusieurs équipements à caractère culturel dont le théâtre l’Arlequin qui accueille en résidence la compagnie BlonBa, la médiathèque Louis-Aragon, la salle polyvalente Pablo-Neruda, l’école municipale d’Arts et du studio d’enregistrement le Tremplin.

Diverses installations sportives sont implantées dans la commune, dont le stade Léo-Lagrange équipé de trois terrains de football, d’une piste d’athlétisme, six courts de tennis et d’un boulodrome, d’une piscine intercommunale, des gymnases Auguste-Delaune dédié aux arts martiaux, Jacques-Everbecq dédié à la gymnastique et René-Rousseau pour les sports collectifs, d’un pas de tir à l’arc, d’un skatepark, d’une salle de tennis de table et de cinq city-stades.

La paroisse catholique de Morsang-sur-Orge est rattachée au secteur pastoral du Val d’Orge-Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois et au diocèse d’Évry-Corbeil-Essonnes. Elle dispose de l’église Saint-Jean-Baptiste et de la chapelle Notre-Dame-de-Grâce. La communauté protestante dispose d’un centre évangélique pentecôtiste et d’un centre baptiste.

L’hebdomadaire Le Républicain relate les informations locales. La commune est en outre dans le bassin d’émission des chaînes de télévision France 3 Paris Île-de-France Centre, IDF1 et Téléssonne intégré à Télif. De plus, la commune de Morsang-sur-Orge publie un journal municipal mensuel nommé le Flash Info. Il diffuse des informations essentiellement locales (évènements, découvertes, messages des élus…).

Morsang-sur-Orge est intégrée par l’Insee au bassin d’emploi d’Orly qui regroupait en 1999 trente communes et 446 024 habitants, les Morsaintois représentant 4 % de la population totale de la zone. Principalement résidentielle, la commune dispose des zones d’activités du Buisson foireux et de la route de Corbeil. Elle comptait plus de mille établissements en 2010 dont prêt de 64 % dans le secteur tertiaire et 15 % dans le secteur administratif. Aucun hôtel ni camping ne sont implantés dans la commune. Un marché se tient dans la commune les mercredis et samedis matins.

En 2009, la commune comptait 10 516 actifs mais seulement 2 772 emplois sur le territoire communal, obligeant 89 % de la population à travailler ailleurs. Le taux de chômage s’élevait cette année là à 8,1 % mais parmi les actifs occupant un emploi, seulement 9 % étaient des salariés précaires, créant une certaine disparité de niveaux de vie avec un revenu net moyen déclaré fixé à 27 983 € mais 31 % des ménages non imposables sur le revenu. En 2006, le revenu fiscal médian par ménage était de 20 761 €, ce qui plaçait la commune au 2 370e rang parmi les 30 687 communes de plus de cinquante ménages que compte le pays et au cent quarante-septième rang départemental. Près d’un quart de la population était logé dans un HLM et prêt de 65 % était propriétaire de son logement.

Le parc du château et les berges de l’Orge ont été recensés au titre des espaces naturels sensibles par le conseil général de l’Essonne. Outre le vaste parc du château au nord, le parc de la Source attenant, le parc Pablo-Picasso au sud et la place Henri-IV participent au cadre de vie, complétés par les avenues bordées d’arbres. Une cépée de platane située dans le parc du château a reçu le label Arbre remarquable.

Le château de Morsang des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles a été inscrit aux monuments historiques le . Une borne routière frappée d’un bonnet phrygien a été inscrite aux monuments historiques le . La ferme de l’abbaye a été inscrite aux monuments historiques le . La ferme de l’Allemanderie date du XVIe siècle, le clocher de l’église Saint-Jean-Baptiste date du XIVe siècle.

Le château de Morsang-sur-Orge, côté parc.

L’ancienne ferme de l’abbaye.

Différents personnages publics sont nés, décédés ou ont vécu à Morsang-sur-Orge :

Les armes de Morsang-sur-Orge se blasonnent : D’azur au chevron d’or accompagné en chef de deux roses d’argent et en pointe d’une coquille du même, au comble ondé d’or.

Il est en partie repris de celui de la famille Vassan.

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :


Rho-Meson (ρ+0)

ρ-Mesonen (Rho-Mesonen), sind Mesonen mit demselben Quarkinhalt wie Pionen, jedoch mit Spin eins. Sie können daher als Drehimpuls-Anregungen der entsprechenden Pionen angesehen werden und sind Vektormesonen.

Genau wie die Pionen bilden auch die ρ-Mesonen ein Isospin-Triplett. Das bedeutet, dass es drei verschiedene Zustände der ρ-Mesonen gibt: das neutrale ρ0, das eine Überlagerung der Zustände uu und dd darstellt

sowie die geladenen ρ+

und ρ

ρ-Mesonen zerfallen zu beinahe 100 % unter der starken Kraft in zwei Pionen. Dadurch haben sie eine sehr kurze Lebenszeit von etwa 4,5 · 10−24 Sekunden bzw. eine sehr große Zerfallsbreite.

ρ-Mesonen konnten erstmals 1961 in Experimenten nachgewiesen werden water sold in glass bottles.

ρ-Mesonen sind die leichtesten Teilchen, die unter der starken Wechselwirkung zerfallen. Dies macht sie in der aktuellen Forschung vor allem von theoretischer Seite interessant reusable water bottle with straw, da sich an ihrem Beispiel die Dynamik der starken Wechselwirkung studieren läßt. In den letzten Jahren (Stand 2011) wurden zum Beispiel im Rahmen von Gitter-QCD-Rechnungen Streuvorgänge von zwei Pionen simuliert. Daraus konnten Masse und Zerfallsbreite der Resonanz extrahiert werden.


Italophilia is the admiration, appreciation or emulation of Italy, its people, its ideals, its civilization or its culture. Its opposite is Italophobia.

The extent to which Italian civilization has shaped Western civilization and, by extension, the civilization of the whole world, is widely recognized and acknowledged. Appreciation of the legacy of Italic ideals, civilization and culture has existed for many centuries, into the present day.

Rome was the center of an empire that stretched across a large segment of the then-known world, and later became the center of the Christian faith. Roman civilization was transplanted to most parts of Europe, the Mediterranean basin and the Near East in the form of law, architecture, engineering, roads, aqueducts, public baths, sanitation, trade, literature, art, libraries, hospitals and agriculture. It was possible for the people in the provinces to attain Roman citizenship, rise to the Senate, and even to become Roman emperor. The Roman provinces, having received much of the benefit of Roman civilization, became Romanized to a large degree. Winston Churchill states:

The Christian religion was viewed in Rome as contrary to prevailing religious and political beliefs and, consequently, was suppressed. Many Christians in Rome and elsewhere were persecuted. After the conversion of the Emperor Constantine to Christianity in 312 AD, Christianity flourished and became an integral part of Roman life. Roman Catholicism, in a form easily recognizable today, emerged and took root in Rome and much of the Roman Empire. The Church adopted many religious customs and forms common in pre-Christian Rome, such as the stole and other vestments, the use of incense and holy water in purifications, burning candles before the altar, the veneration of saints, the architecture of the basilica, the law of Rome as a basis for canon law, the title Pontifex Maximus for the Pope, and Latin as the language of Catholic ritual.

The cultural patrimony of Roman literature best hydration pack for runners, architecture and sculpture inspired many of the achievements of the Middle Ages and Renaissance in Italy and the rest of Europe. Works by poets, authors and historians, such as Ovid, Horace, Catullus, Cicero, Virgil, Livy and Tacitus had a far reaching impact on the Western world.

The legacy of Rome is apparent in the Western world, and elsewhere, in numerous ways, such as:

After the fall of the Roman Empire, its vast governmental network provided a structure for the Roman Catholic Church’s ecclesiastic rule. The bishops, rather than the Roman prefects became the source of order and the seat of power. In many important ways, the Roman Catholic Church became the successor of the Roman Empire. The Church and its Pope were major stabilizing influences in Europe in the centuries that followed. In the words of historian Will Durant (in his Caesar and Christ, The Story of Civilization):

The civilization of Italy continued to be a cultural force that helped preserve Greco-Roman civilization and ideals during this period. Latin, the indigenous language of the Italic people, became the universal language of the Catholic Church and, generally, of culture and learning in Europe.

Western Monasticism, as first practiced by the followers of Saint Benedict, born in Nursia in 480 AD, spread from Italy to all parts of Europe. The Benedictine monks were a very important factor in preserving Greco-Roman culture and learning for later centuries.

Gregorian Chant, an outgrowth of Roman plain chant, strongly influenced both liturgical and secular music during the Middle Ages. An Italian monk, Guido of Arezzo (born in 991), developed the form of musical notation that became the basis of Western music and, subsequently, of music worldwide.

Saint Francis of Assisi (born Giovanni di Bernardone in Assisi in 1181) was a friar who founded the men’s Order of Friars Minor and the women’s Order of St. Clare, both of which attracted many followers from all over Europe. He became one of the most venerated religious figures in Catholic Church history.

Saint Thomas Aquinas, a Dominican priest born in Aquino in 1225, was a philosopher and theologian. He was one of the greatest minds of the Middle Ages, and he had a widespread influence on Western thought. He was considered then, as he is now, to be the greatest theologian and philosopher of the Catholic Church. He is best known for his major work, the Summa Theologica.

Educated people in Europe were familiar with the works of Dante and Boccaccio, which dominated the literature of the Middle Ages, and with their contemporary Petrarch, who had established the most important lyric poetry tradition in Europe. These works had a significant influence on Shakespeare, Chaucer and many other writers of the Middle Ages and Renaissance.

Students and scholars came from all over Europe to study at institutions of higher learning in Italy. The Medical School at Salerno, founded in the ninth century, was the world’s first medical school, and unrivalled in the Middle Ages. The University of Bologna, the first modern university, was founded in Bologna in 1088. The University of Padua, the second oldest university in Italy, was founded in 1222 as a school of law. The University of Naples, founded in 1224, was the world’s first state-supported university.

During the Middle Ages, the vitality of Italian merchants was evident throughout Europe, and the resultant trade prompted their invention of financial and business practices which provided the foundation for modern banking, commerce and capitalism. The original banks were “merchant banks” that Italian grain merchants first invented in the Middle Ages. Merchants and bankers grew in stature based on the strength of the Lombard plains cereal crops, and capitalism evolved based on these banks.

Indeed, banking (from the Italian word for “bench”) can be traced to medieval and early Renaissance Italy, to the rich cities in the north such as Florence, Venice and Genoa. The Bardi and Peruzzi families dominated banking in 14th century Florence, establishing branches in many other parts of Europe. Perhaps the most famous Italian bank was the Medici bank, established by Giovanni Medici in 1397. The development of banking spread from northern Italy through Europe during the early Renaissance and helped create modern capitalism. Luca Pacioli is referred to as the “Father of Accounting”

The Bank of Saint George (Casa delle compere e dei banchi di San Giorgio) was a bank of the Republic of Genoa, which was the main financer of the voyages of Columbus to the New World by Spain, founded in the 14th century. It is the oldest chartered bank in Europe and the world.

The Italian Renaissance was to a large extent an expression of humanism, that led to one of the most productive and significant periods in human history in the arts, literature, medicine and science. Greeks fleeing the Turkish invasion of the Byzantine Empire flocked to Italy, and helped spur the Renaissance and interest in ancient Greek texts. The Italian Renaissance also transformed art and humanism across Europe, and set the stage for the Enlightenment.

In the words of historian Will Durant:

Giotto, born in 1267, is recognized as the first great artistic genius of the Italian Renaissance. His ability to portray human emotions distinguished him from the artists of the Middle Ages, and he established a style of painting that would be widely emulated in Italy and, later, elsewhere in Europe. Italian Renaissance painters and sculptors, such as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo Buonarroti, and scores of others of the first rank, were greatly admired and acclaimed, and had a widespread influence on artistic concepts and esthetic standards throughout Europe.

Italian artists, beginning with Giotto, mastered the use of perspective and chiaroscuro (light and shadow), which had a widespread influence on Western art. Brunelleschi, an architect, was the first to explain perspective in terms of a well-defined set of geometric rules. Some science historians credit the mastery of chiaroscuro, together with the discovery of the rules of perspective, as of fundamental importance in the development of modern science.

Leonardo da Vinci, born in 1452 in Vinci, was a painter, sculptor, architect where can you buy football jerseys, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist best reusable bottles, cartographer, botanist, and writer. His genius, perhaps more than that of any of his contemporaries, epitomized the creative energy of the Renaissance. He is widely considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time, and his Mona Lisa is regarded by many to be the most famous painting in the world. His anatomical drawings have never been surpassed in detail and accuracy, and are still in use today.

Michelangelo was born in Florence in 1475 and, like Leonardo, was a true Renaissance man. He was a sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. He was considered the greatest living artist in his lifetime and, since then, one of the greatest artists of all time. His two best-known sculptures, the Pietà and David, are famous throughout the world. Michelangelo also created two of the most famous and influential frescoes in the history of Western art: the scenes from Genesis covering the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and The Last Judgment on the altar wall of the Chapel.

Renaissance architecture of the 15th and 16th centuries was a revival of elements of ancient Greek and Roman architecture. It first developed in Florence, with Brunelleschi, Alberti and Palladio being among its innovators, and soon spread to other Italian cities, and later to France, Germany, England, Russia and other parts of Europe. The Renaissance style placed emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts as exemplified in the architecture of classical antiquity and in particular in the architecture of ancient Rome, of which many examples remained. It was succeeded by Baroque architecture.

Italian singers, composers, dancers and actors had a great impact on music and the performing arts. Palestrina, Monteverdi and Frescobaldi were responsible for musical innovations that were seminal in the development of Western music. Italian Commedia dell’arte was an art form that had a great influence in the performing arts, not only in Italy but in many other parts of Europe as well.

Ballet began in 15th-century Renaissance Italy. The foot positions and steps that make up classic ballet were created by Renaissance dance masters in the 1400s. Wealthy Italian nobles staged elaborate court dances to celebrate events such as weddings or the birth of an heir. The choreographers of these Renaissance spectacles became known as ballet masters. One of the earliest ballet masters, Domenico da Piacenza, wrote dance manuals describing the steps, with diagrams of the figures and patterns created by the movements, which allowed the dances to be recreated in other courts throughout Europe. He used the word “ballo”, the Italian word for dance, to describe his choreography. When Catherine de Medici married King Henry II of France, she brought the Italian dance tradition with her to France.

The flourishing of arts in Tudor England during the English Renaissance attracted many Italian artists and musicians to the country. William Shakespeare is said to have exhibited Italophilia in his many works with an Italian setting, such as Romeo and Juliet and The Merchant of Venice. Spenser’s epic poem, The Faerie Queene, was greatly influenced by Italian epic poems, particularly Ludovico Ariosto’s Orlando Furioso (1532), and Torquato Tasso’s Gerusalemme Liberata (1581). Francis I, king of France, initiated the French Renaissance by attracting many Italian artists, including Leonardo da Vinci, to his court. French theatre of the 17th century was rooted in the theatre of 16th-century Italy. Poland was strongly influenced by Italian artisans, painters, sculptors and architects, such as the sculptor, Giammaria Mosca, whose many commissions included the tomb of the king of Poland. The Spanish writer, Cervantes insulated water jug, was greatly influenced by Italian literature, which is readily discernible in his own works. Spanish theatre of the 17th century was strongly influenced by Italian models.

The University of Bologna, the first modern university, was a leading center of mathematical studies in the 16th century, and it was there that Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia developed the method of solving cubic equations, an achievement previously considered impossible. Extending Tartaglia’s work, Lodovico Ferrari devised a similar method to solve quartic equations, and both solutions were published by Gerolamo Cardano. The solutions to the cubic and quartic equations used, for the first time, what are now known as complex numbers, although it was another Bologna mathematician, Rafael Bombelli, who first explained what complex numbers are, and how they could be used. Complex numbers have since found practical applications in many fields, including physics, chemistry, biology, economics, electrical engineering, and statistics. Later, Cardano published the first systematic treatment of probability.

Italy was a center of commerce and Italian explorers and merchants, such as the Venetian Marco Polo, and the Italian maritime republics moved all around the known world. The Genoese explorer Cristoforo Colombo discovered America in 1492, changing world history forever. Another Italian navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, was the source of the name given to the New World. They were followed by other New World navigators from the Italian peninsula, notably the Venetians Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot) and Sebastiano Caboto (Sebastian Cabot), and the Florentine Giovanni da Verrazzano.

Beginning in the 16th century, Italian states came under the political control of more powerful European monarchies; however, Italy continued to be a source of creative energy in art, science, music and medicine. Enlightenment thinkers, like Renaissance thinkers, were interested in pre-Christian Greek and Roman thought.

Galileo, born in 1564 in Pisa, was the most famous scientist of his age, and played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. He is often referred to as the “Father of Modern Science.” His achievements include a greatly improved telescope, which he employed in making astronomical observations supporting the heliocentric theory of Copernicus; and also the experiments he carried out leading to his law of falling bodies, which was of key importance in Newton’s synthesis of his own famous three laws of motion.

Bonaventura Cavalieri, a Jesuit priest and mathematician, born in 1598, is known for his work on indivisibles, a precursor of infinitesimal calculus, and for Cavalieri’s principle in geometry, which partially anticipated integral calculus.

Alessandro Volta, born in Como in 1745, invented the first true electrical battery, known as the voltaic pile. It provided a continuous source of electric current, which greatly benefitted Ampere, Ohm and other electrical experimenters in their development of basic electrical theory. A unit of electricity (volt) is named in his honor.

Italians such as Fallopio, Eustachi, Malpighi, Morgagni and Valsalva were important pioneers of modern anatomy at the University of Bologna and University of Padua, which drew students from all over Europe. Padua’s famous anatomical theatre was renowned in Europe at the time, and the great English medical scientist William Harvey received his education there.

Cesare Beccaria, a philosopher, jurist and marquis wrote On Crimes and Punishments (1754), dealing with the abolition of torture and capital punishment, which had a great impact throughout Europe and in the United States. It strongly influenced intellectuals and politicians in the age of enlightenment, and led to a revolution and reform of judiciary systems to the prevailing modern concept. In 1786, Grand Duchy of Tuscany was the first to abolish capital punishment.

Giordano Bruno had a great influence on 17th-century scientific and philosophical thought and, ever since, his ideals have been absorbed by many philosophers. Bruno’s freedom of thought inspired European liberal movements of the 19th century. The significance of Bruno’s work lies in his cosmological theories, which anticipated some fundamental aspects of the modern concept of the universe; his ethical ideas, in contrast with religious ascetical ethics, which appealed to modern humanistic activism; and his ideals of religious and philosophical tolerance.

Giambattista Vico was a political philosopher, rhetorician, historian, and jurist, who is recognized as one of the great Enlightenment thinkers. He criticized the expansion and development of modern rationalism and was an apologist of classical antiquity. His major work, Scienza Nuova, published in 1725, has been highly influential in the philosophy of history, into the 20th-century.

Opera originated in Italy at the end of the 16th century (with the opera Dafne, which was composed by Jacopo Peri, and produced in Florence in 1598), and soon spread to the rest of Europe. Italian opera was adapted by French, German and Russian composers, who developed their own national schools of opera.

Italian instrumental music was studied and emulated all over Europe. The sonata, concerto, sinfonia, oratorio and other musical forms all originated in Italy. Italian terminology defining the tempo and mood of a musical passage was universally adopted in Western music. The music of Italian composers, such as Corelli, Scarlatti, and Vivaldi, was studied or transcribed by many other composers of the day, most notably Bach. In addition, many composers, such as Handel, Gluck and Mozart studied or worked in Italy, and subsequently became famous for their instrumental music and operas.

The Fortepiano, the fore-runner of the modern Piano, was invented by Bartolomeo Cristofori in Florence around 1725, and soon replaced the harpsichord as a solo and ensemble keyboard instrument.

The family of stringed instruments, consisting of the violin, viola, cello and contrabass evolved in Italy in the mid 16th century. Antonio Stradivari, Andrea Guarneri, Nicolo Amati and other master instrument makers crafted stringed instruments that were highly prized, widely imitated, but never equaled.

The education of upper-class young man was expected to be completed by a “grand tour” of Italy to be exposed to the visible legacies of its classical culture, as well as to its contemporary culture of music, literature, art and architecture. Famous examples included Goethe, Keats, Lord Byron and Shelley. Many of the nobility and royalty of the time visited Italy as a part of their education. Keats said that the country was a “paradise of exiles”. John Ruskin was a Victorian Italophile who respected the concepts of morality held in Italy.

Italian universities and medical schools attracted students and scholars from across Europe. Luminaries, such as Copernicus and Harvey, were educated in Italy.

At the end of the eighteenth century, Italiophilia was not uncommon among the founders of the United States, and some of the creators of the U.S. Constitution, such as Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin, looked to Roman models upon which to base the American systems of government and law. The founding fathers were also interested in Renaissance political thinkers and humanists like Machiavelli, and how Italian republics functioned. Jefferson was among the most conspicuous of the early American Italophiles. He was especially impressed with Italian architecture, and based the design of his Virginia residence, Monticello, on prints by Palladio, the 16th-century Italian architect. The Jefferson Memorial in Washington DC, erected in honor of Jefferson, is a neo-Palladian imitation of the Pantheon in Rome. The Palladian style of architecture appears elsewhere in the U.S. Capital, and the White House itself was inspired by it. (Congressional Resolution n. 259 of 6 December 2010 recognized Palladio as Father of American Architecture.)

The influence of Italian culture and artistry during this era is expressed by Barzini:

In 1861 Italy was united for the first time since the fall of the Roman Empire and became a modern industrialized country, where the tradition of creativity, scientific achievement and excellence in manufacturing continued.

Giuseppe Garibaldi, a central figure in achieving Italian independence, was called the “Hero of Two Worlds” because of his military enterprises to achieve independence for countries in South America as well. Garibaldi was admired by many of the greatest intellectuals of his time, such as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, and George Sand.

Maria Montessori, born in 1870, was a physician and educator who became known around the world for the educational method that bears her name, and for her writings on pedagogy. Her methods are in use today in schools throughout the world.

In the early 20th century Pirandello, a Nobel Laureate, was the first European playwright to radically question the structures of traditional theatre. Since then, film directors and writers such as Fellini, Antonioni, Pasolini, Calvino, Eco and Fo have been recognized around the world. Italian neorealism in films, beginning after the second world war, had a great impact on audiences around the world, and established a new philosophy of filmmaking adopted worldwide.

There is a worldwide recognition and appreciation of the legacy of the Italian scientists Fermi (nuclear power), Meucci (telephone), and Marconi (radio), whose discoveries and inventions transformed the world. At the same time that German scientists were making major advancements in physics, beginning with Max Planck, Italian scientists like Fermi’s Via Panisperna group in Rome were making important fundamental discoveries in physics as well. The first public flight of a jet-engined aircraft was that of the Italian Caproni Campini N.1 prototype on August 27, 1940. Italy was the fourth country in the world to build nuclear power plants, starting in 1955 (now decommissioned due to a popular referendum in 1987), and the third, after The United States and The Soviet Union, to launch a scientific earth satellite in the 1964 San Marco programme, using an American Scout missile as the launch vehicle. The Broglio Space Centre, located on a sea platform offshore the Kenya coast is the only example of a spacecraft launch center built on a floating sea platform. Italian companies have developed products that are of fundamental importance in contemporary society, such as the Olivetti-developed transistorized mainframe computer systems and, in 1964, the world’s first commercial desktop computer, the Programma 101, invented by Pier Giorgio Perotto.

Today, Italy is admired throughout the world for its design, particularly in the areas of fashion and manufactured goods. Italian fashions by Gucci, Benetton Armani, Valentino, Prada, Dolce & Gabbana, Ferragamo and Versace are known worldwide. In automobile design, the brand names Ferrari, Lamborghini and Maserati are known and admired throughout the world. In Britain in the 1960s the emerging mod subculture championed Italian and French design, with mods adopting the Vespa GS and the Lambretta LI 150 motor scooters as their preferred means of transport as well as wearing Italian-designed clothes and shoes, and had a lasting effect – Britain remains Vespa’s largest market outside of Italy. Italian design and manufacturing in furniture, architecture and interior design is appreciated worldwide. Architects like Renzo Piano have designed important modern buildings such as Centre Pompidou in Paris and Kansai International Airport in Osaka. Architect and designer Giò Ponti was a pioneer in industrial design, and inspired many other Italian designers who have established the Italian image of design excellence in the world. Designers such as Ettore Sottsass, and his Memphis Group of designers, are famous for creating postmodern furniture, fabrics, ceramics, glass and metal objects; and lighting manufacturer Artemide is famous for lamps which transcend their common use as objects, and are nowadays considered cult manufacturing artworks, collected in Museums of Modern Art.

Italy ranks among the world’s most popular tourist destinations, with about 45 million tourists visiting the country every year. Italy has forty-seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites, more than any other country. It is also home to a large number of religious sites that draw people from all parts of the world. According to UNESCO, the cultural and educational agency for the United Nations, over 60 percent of the entire world’s art treasures are found in Italy, which draws tourists, scholars, artists and art historians from everywhere in the world. Many are drawn to Rome, still known as the “Eternal City,” for its history, culture and the fact that Vatican City, the center of world-wide Catholicism, is located there. Other places in Italy that attract many tourists are Venice, Florence, and sites associated with Padre Pio and Francis of Assisi,

The descendants of Italian immigrants to the countries of North and South America, in many cases, still retain an appreciation of their Italian roots, culture and traditions. Italophilia is actively fostered by organizations such as the Order Sons of Italy in America, the National Italian American Foundation, the Dante Alighieri Society and the Italic Institute of America.

Giorgio Silvestri (director of the “Assemblea legislativa della Liguria”) has conjectured that there are nearly 250 million Italophiles in the world.

Doctor Who Unbound

Doctor Who Unbound is a series of audio plays produced by Big Finish Productions. Free from the constraints of continuity, the Doctor Who Unbound audios present a series of “What if…?” scenarios, and cast new actors in the role of the Doctor.

David Warner is reprising his version of the Doctor in series 3 of The New Adventures of Bernice Summerfield subtitled The Unbound Universe.

In Exile, Arabella Weir plays a female incarnation of the Doctor. American alternative weekly Houston Presss Andrew Blair selected Doctor Who Unbound as one of the ten Doctor Who stories that would make great musicals. The Mary Sues Alan Kistler said “fans enjoyed imagining these alternate Doctors” of David Warner and Arabella Weir. American alternative weekly newspaper Houston Presss Anglophenia featured a fan-made version of the Doctor Who theme music for Unbounds alternate Second Doctor.


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