Przemek II Opawski

Przemek (Przemysław) II Opawski (Starszy) (ur. pomiędzy 1423 a 1425, zm. 16 czerwca 1478) – książę opawski wspólnie z braćmi w latach 1433-1464. Pochodził z dynastii Przemyślidów.

Przemek II był najmłodszym synem księcia opawskiego Przemka I i jego drugiej żony Heleny Bośniackiej top glass water bottles. Książę w związku z tym weatherproof phone box, że posiadał czterech starszych braci przyrodnich (byli to: Wacław II, Mikołaj IV, Wilhelm i Ernest), został przeznaczony do kariery duchownej jogging water bottle holder.

Pierwszą prebendą Przemka II była nominacja ok. 1446 r. na członka kapituły katedry we Wrocławiu. Następnie podjął studia teologiczne na uniwersytetach w Krakowie i Wiedniu. Zdobył tam staranne wykształcenie, dzięki czemu mógł napisać traktat astrologiczny pt. “Practice verissima domini ducis Przsenikonis data per dominum Petrum presbiterumde Oppavia Ludwico ad faciendam veram et perfectum lunam”

Po skończeniu nauki ok. 1455 r. powrócił do Wrocławia, gdzie w 1465 r. otrzymał stanowisko subdiakona i kantora kolegiaty św. Krzyża.

Przemek II był jednym z poważnych kandydatów na biskupa wrocławskiego, kiedy po śmierci Jodoka z Rożemberka został administratorem diecezji. Niewielkie dochody księcia i brak możliwości odpowiedniej reklamy spowodowały, że wybór kapituły padł na Rudolfa Rüdesheima.

W 1456 r. wspólnie z bratem Ernestem zastawił za 28 000 dukatów swoje prawa do księstwa opawskiego książętom opolskim a osiem lat później przeniósł prawo wykupu zastawu na władcę czeskiego Jerzego z Podiebradów, dzięki czemu stał się współlikwidatorem władztwa Przemyślidów na Opawszczyźnie.

Przemek II Opawski zmarł 16 czerwca 1478 i został pochowany we wrocławskim kościele św. Krzyża, gdzie do dnia dzisiejszego zachował się jego nagrobek.

Moreno Argentin

Moreno Argentin (* 17. Dezember 1960 in San Donà di Piave) ist ein ehemaliger italienischer Radrennfahrer. Er gilt als einer der besten Radrennfahrer der 1980er-Jahre.

Moreno Argentin war in den Jahren 1978 und 1979 Nachwuchsfahrer in der italienischen Bahnnationalmannschaft. 1977 und 1978 wurde er italienischer Junioren-Meister in der Mannschaftsverfolgung, 1978 Jugendmeister im Mannschaftszeitfahren. 1979 errang er gemeinsam mit Maurizio Bidinost und Pierangelo Biancoletto den Titel des italienischen Amateurmeisters in der Mannschaftsverfolgung und 1980 ein zweites Mal. Daneben legte er das Abitur ab und absolvierte eine Ausbildung zum Dentisten.

1980, mit 19 Jahren, unterschrieb Argentin seinen ersten Profivertrag italienischen Radsportteam Benotto. In den folgenden Jahren feierte er seine größten Erfolge vor allem bei Eintages-Klassikern. 1986 wurde er Straßen-Radweltmeister, ein Erfolg, den er ein Jahr später fast wiederholt hätte, als er Vize-Weltmeister wurde. Zwischen 1985 und 1987 gewann er dreimal hintereinander Lüttich–Bastogne–Lüttich.

Als Sprintspezialist war Moreno Argentin in der Gesamtwertung großer Rundfahrten weniger erfolgreich, gewann aber im Laufe seiner Karriere 13 Etappen beim Giro d’Italia und zwei Etappen der Tour de France. Beim Giro kam Argentin zwischen 1981 und 1994 neun Mal in die Endwertung und hatte 1984 mit Rang drei seine beste Platzierung. Beim Giro 1993, bei dem er zwei Etappen gewann, trug er auf zehn Etappen das Rosa Trikot des Spitzenreiters. 1988, 1990 und 1991 boykottierte er im Streit mit der italienischen Presse den Giro. Drei Endplatzierungen zwischen 1990 und 1992 stehen bei der Tour de France zu Buche, der 27. Platz 1990 war sein bestes Ergebnis. Neben seinem Weltmeisterschaftstitel kam Argentin zwischen 1982 und 1988 siebenmal in die WM-Ränge. 1985 (3.), 1986 (1.) und 1987 (2.) stand er jeweils auf dem Siegerpodest. Obwohl er das Rennen Mailand–Sanremo siebenmal bestritt, konnte er den wichtigsten italienischen Frühjahrsklassiker nie gewinnen. 1982 wurde er Dritter und 1992 Zweiter, nachdem ihm der sicher geglaubte Sieg im Zielsprint von dem auf der Abfahrt vom Poggio di Sanremo aufgeschlossenen Iren Sean Kelly abgenommen wurde.

Im Juni 1994 erklärte Argentin, der aus seiner Verbindung zu dem Sportarzt Dr. Michele Ferrari nie einen Hehl gemacht hatte, seinen Rücktritt.

Bereits Ende der 1980er-Jahre hatte Argentin seinen Wohnsitz nach Monaco verlegt. Er wurde Teilhaber einer großen Holzsägerei und an einem Bauunternehmen für Sozialwohnungen.

In einem Interview mit der Radsportzeitung Gazzetta dello Sport anlässlich seines 50. Geburtstages übte Argentin Kritik am heutigen Radsport. Die Fahrer seien nicht mehr hungrig und hätten kein Rückgrat. Die Politik des Weltradsportverbandes Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) sei nur noch am Geschäft interessiert: „The track is dead and buried and the road is going the same way.“ (deutsch: „Der Bahnradsport ist tot und beerdigt, und der Straßenradsport geht denselben Weg.“)

Im Oktober 2016 wurde Argentin von einem Gericht in Venedig wegen Betruges im Rahmen eines Immobiliengeschäftes zu einem Jahr Gefängnis auf Bewährung sowie einer Geldstrafe von 310.000 Euro verurteilt.

1927, 1930, 1932 Alfredo Binda | 1928, 1929 Georges Ronsse | 1931 Learco Guerra | 1933 Georges Speicher | 1934 Karel Kaers&nbsp electric lint remover;| 1935 Jean Aerts | 1936 Antonin Magne | 1937 Eloi Meulenberg | 1938 Marcel Kint | 1946 Hans Knecht | 1947 Theofiel Middelkamp | 1948, 1950 Briek Schotte | 1949, 1956, 1957 Rik Van Steenbergen | 1951 Ferdy Kübler | 1952 Heinz Müller | 1953 Fausto Coppi | 1954 Louison Bobet | 1955 Stan Ockers | 1958 Ercole Baldini | 1959 André Darrigade | 1960, 1961 Rik Van Looy | 1962 Jean Stablinski | 1963 Benoni Beheyt | 1964 Jan Janssen | 1965 Tom Simpson | 1966 Rudi Altig | 1967, 1971, 1974 Eddy Merckx | 1968 Vittorio Adorni | 1969 Harm Ottenbros | 1970 Jean-Pierre Monseré | 1972 Marino Basso | 1973 Felice Gimondi | 1975 Hennie Kuiper | 1976, 1981 Freddy Maertens | 1977 Francesco Moser | 1978 Gerrie Knetemann | 1979 Jan Raas | 1980 Bernard Hinault | 1982 Giuseppe Saronni | 1983, 1989 Greg LeMond | 1984 Claude Criquielion | 1985 Joop Zoetemelk | 1986 Moreno Argentin | 1987 Stephen Roche | 1988 Maurizio Fondriest | 1990 Rudy Dhaenens | 1991, 1992 Gianni Bugno | 1993 Lance Armstrong | 1994 Luc Leblanc | 1995 Abraham Olano | 1996 Johan Museeuw | 1997 Laurent Brochard | 1998 Oscar Camenzind | 1999, 2001, 2004 Óscar Freire | 2000 Romāns Vainšteins | 2002 Mario Cipollini | 2003 Igor Astarloa | 2005 Tom Boonen | 2006, 2007 Paolo Bettini | 2008 Alessandro Ballan | 2009 Cadel Evans | 2010 Thor Hushovd | 2011 Mark Cavendish | 2012 Philippe Gilbert | 2013 Rui Costa | 2014 Michał Kwiatkowski | 2015, 2016 Peter Sagan

1913 Paul Deman | 1914 Marcel Buysse | 1915–1918 nicht ausgetragen | 1919 Henri Van Lerberghe | 1920 Jules Vanhevel | 1921 René Vermandel | 1922 Léon Devos | 1923 Heiri Suter | 1924, 1927 Gerard Debaets | 1925 Julien Delbecque | 1926 Denis Verschueren | 1928 Jan Mertens | 1929 Jef Dervaes | 1930 Frans Bonduel | 1931, 1932 Romain Gijssels | 1933 Alfons Schepers | 1934 Gaston Rebry | 1935 Louis Duerloo | 1936 Louis Hardequest | 1937 Michel D’Hooghe | 1938 Edgard De Caluwé | 1939 Karel Kaers | 1940, 1941, 1943 Achiel Buysse | 1942, 1948 Briek Schotte | 1944, 1946 Rik Van Steenbergen | 1945 Sylvain Crysolle | 1947 Emiel Faingnaert | 1949, 1950, 1951 Fiorenzo Magni | 1952 Roger Decock | 1953 Wim van Est | 1954 Raymond Impanis | 1955 Louison Bobet | 1956 Jean Forestier | 1957 Fred De Bruyne | 1958 Germain Derycke | 1959, 1962 Rik Van Looy | 1960 Arthur De Cabooter | 1961 Tom Simpson | 1963 Noël Foré | 1964 Rudi Altig | 1965 Jo de Roo | 1966 Edward Sels | 1967 Dino Zandegù | 1968, 1978 Walter Godefroot | 1969, 1975 Eddy Merckx | 1970, 1972, 1973 Eric Leman | 1971 Evert Dolman | 1974 Cees Bal | 1976 Walter Planckaert | 1977 Roger De Vlaeminck | 1979, 1983 Jan Raas | 1980 Michel Pollentier | 1981 Hennie Kuiper | 1982 René Maertens | 1984 Johan Lammerts | 1985 Eric Vanderaerden | 1986 Adrie van der Poel | 1987 Claude Criquielion | 1988 Eddy Planckaert | 1989, 1991 Edwig Van Hooydonck | 1990 Moreno Argentin | 1992 Jacky Durand | 1993, 1995, 1998 Johan Museeuw | 1994 Gianni Bugno | 1996 Michele Bartoli | 1997 Rolf Sørensen | 1999, 2003 Peter Van Petegem | 2000 Andrej Tschmil | 2001 Gianluca Bortolami | 2002 Andrea Tafi | 2004 Steffen Wesemann | 2005, 2006, 2012 Tom Boonen | 2007 Alessandro Ballan | 2008, 2009 Stijn Devolder | 2010, 2013, 2014 Fabian Cancellara | 2011 Nick Nuyens | 2015 Alexander Kristoff | 2016 Peter Sagan

1892, 1893, 1894 Léon Houa | 1895–1907 nicht ausgetragen | 1908 André Trousselier | 1909 Victor Fastre | 1911 Joseph Vandaele | 1912 Omer Verschoore | 1913 Maurice Moritz | 1915–1918 nicht ausgetragen | 1919 Léon Devos | 1920 Léon Scieur | 1921, 1922 Louis Mottiat | 1923, 1924 René Vermandel | 1925 Georges Ronsse | 1926 Dieudonne Smets | 1927 Maurice Raes | 1928 Ernest Mottard | 1929, 1931, 1935 Alfons Schepers&nbsp top glass water bottles;| 1930 Hermann Buse | 1932 Marcel Houvoux | 1933 François Gardier | 1934 Theo Herckenrath | 1936 Albert Beckaert | 1937 Eloi Meulenberg | 1938 Alphons Deloor | 1939 Albert Ritserveldt | 1940–1942 nicht ausgetragen | 1943, 1947 Richard Depoorter | 1944 nicht ausgetragen | 1945 Jan Engels | 1946, 1950 Prosper Depredomme | 1948 Maurice Mollin | 1949 Camille Danquillaume | 1951, 1952 Ferdy Kübler | 1953 Alois De Hertog | 1954 Marcel Ernzer | 1955 Stan Ockers | 1956, 1958, 1959 Fred De Bruyne | 1957 Germain Derycke | 1960 Ab Geldermans | 1961 Rik Van Looy | 1962 Jef Planckaert | 1963 Frans Melckenbeeck | 1964 Willy Bocklant | 1965 Carmino Preziosi | 1966 Jacques Anquetil | 1967 Walter Godefroot | 1968 Valère Van Sweevelt | 1969, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975 Eddy Merckx | 1970 Roger De Vlaeminck | 1974 Georges Pintens | 1976, 1978 Joseph Bruyère | 1977, 1980 Bernard Hinault | 1979 Dietrich Thurau | 1981 Josef Fuchs | 1982 Silvano Contini | 1983 Steven Rooks | 1984, 1989 Sean Kelly | 1985, 1986, 1987, 1991 Moreno Argentin | 1988 Adrie van der Poel | 1990 Eric Van Lancker | 1992 Dirk De Wolf | 1993 Rolf Sørensen | 1994 Jewgeni Bersin | 1995 Mauro Gianetti | 1996 Pascal Richard&nbsp football shirt creator;| 1997, 1998 Michele Bartoli | 1999 Frank Vandenbroucke | 2000, 2002 Paolo Bettini | 2001 Oscar Camenzind | 2003 Tyler Hamilton | 2004 Davide Rebellin | 2005, 2010 Alexander Winokurow | 2006, 2008, 2015 Alejandro Valverde | 2007 Danilo Di Luca | 2009 Andy Schleck | 2011 Philippe Gilbert | 2012 Maxim Iglinski | 2013 Daniel Martin | 2014 Simon Gerrans | 2016 Wout Poels

1905 Giovanni Gerbi | 1906 Cesare Brambilla | 1907 Gustave Garrigou | 1908 François Faber | 1909 Giovanni Cuniolo | 1910 Giovanni Micheletto | 1911, 1913, 1920 Henri Pélissier | 1912 Carlo Orliani | 1914 Lauro Bordin | 1915, 1918, 1928 Gaetano Belloni | 1916 Leopoldo Torricelli | 1917 Philippe Thys | 1919, 1921, 1922 Costante Girardengo | 1923, 1924 Giovanni Brunero | 1925, 1926, 1927, 1931 Alfredo Binda | 1929 Pietro Fossati | 1930 Michele Mara | 1932 Antonio Negrini | 1933 Domenico Piemontesi | 1934 Learco Guerra | 1935 Enrico Mollo | 1936, 1939, 1940 Gino Bartali | 1937, 1942 Aldo Bini | 1938 Cino Cinelli | 1941, 1945 Mario Ricci | 1943–1944 nicht ausgetragen | 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1954 Fausto Coppi | 1950 Renzo Soldani | 1952 Giuseppe Minardi | 1953 Bruno Landi | 1955 Cleto Maule | 1956 André Darrigade | 1957 Diego Ronchini | 1958 Nino Defilippis | 1959 Rik Van Looy | 1960 Emile Daems | 1961 Vito Toccani | 1962, 1963 Jo de Roo | 1964 Gianni Motta | 1965 Tom Simpson | 1966, 1973 Felice Gimondi | 1967, 1970 Franco Bitossi | 1968 Herman Van Springel | 1969 Jean-Pierre Monseré | 1971, 1972 Eddy Merckx | 1974, 1976 Roger De Vlaeminck | 1975, 1978 Francesco Moser | 1977, 1986 Gianbattista Baronchelli | 1979, 1984 Bernard Hinault | 1980 Alfons De Wolf | 1981 Hennie Kuiper | 1982 Giuseppe Saronni | 1983, 1985, 1991 Sean Kelly | 1987 Moreno Argentin | 1988 Charly Mottet | 1989, 1992 Tony Rominger | 1990 Gilles Delion | 1993 Pascal Richard | 1994 Vladislav Bobrik | 1995 Gianni Faresin | 1996 Andrea Tafi | 1997 Laurent Jalabert | 1998 Oscar Camenzind | 1999 Mirko Celestino | 2000 Raimondas Rumšas | 2001 Danilo Di Luca | 2002, 2003 Michele Bartoli | 2004, 2007, 2008 Damiano Cunego | 2005, 2006 Paolo Bettini | 2009, 2010 Philippe Gilbert | 2011 Oliver Zaugg | 2012, 2013 Joaquim Rodríguez | 2014 Daniel Martin | 2015 Vincenzo Nibali | 2016 Esteban Chaves

1885 Giuseppe Loretz | 1886 Geo Davidson | 1887–1889 Gilberto Marley | 1890 Carlo Braida | 1891 Ambrogio Robecchi | 1892 Luigi Cantu | 1893 Giuseppe Moreschi | 1896 Giovanni Da Montelatico | 1906–1908 Giovanni Cuniolo | 1909, 1911 Dario Beni | 1910 Emilio Petiva | 1913, 1914, 1919–1925 Costante Girardengo | 1926–1929 Alfredo Binda | 1930–1934 Learco Guerra | 1935, 1937, 1940, 1952 Gino Bartali | 1936 Giuseppe Olmo | 1938 Olimpio Bizzi | 1939 Mario Vicini | 1941 Adolfo Leoni | 1942, 1947, 1949, 1955 Fausto Coppi | 1943 Mario Ricci | 1945 Severino Canavesi | 1946 Aldo Ronconi | 1948 Vito Ortelli | 1950 Antonio Bevilacqua | 1951, 1953, 1954 Fiorenzo Magni | 1956 Giorgio Albani | 1957, 1958 Ercole Baldini | 1959 Diego Ronchini | 1960, 1962 Nino Defilippis | 1961 Arturo Sabbadin | 1963 Bruno Mealli | 1964 Guido De Rosso | 1965, 1966 Michele Dancelli | 1967 Franco Balmamion | 1968, 1972 Felice Gimondi | 1969 Vittorio Adorni | 1970, 1971, 1976 Franco Bitossi | 1973, 1974, 1977 Enrico Paolini | 1975, 1979, 1981 Francesco Moser | 1978, 1982, 1988 Pierino Gavazzi | 1980 Giuseppe Saronni | 1983, 1989 Moreno Argentin | 1984 Vittorio Algeri | 1985, 1986 Claudio Corti | 1987 Bruno Leali | 1990 Giorgio Furlan | 1991, 1995 Gianni Bugno | 1992 Marco Giovannetti | 1993, 1994 Massimo Podenzana | 1996 Mario Cipollini | 1997 Gianni Faresin | 1998 Andrea Tafi | 1999, 2002 Salvatore Commesso | 2000 Michele Bartoli | 2001 Daniele Nardello | 2003, 2006 Paolo Bettini | 2004 Cristian Moreni | 2005 Enrico Gasparotto | 2007, 2010, 2011 Giovanni Visconti | 2008 Filippo Simeoni | 2009 Filippo Pozzato | 2012 Franco Pellizotti | 2013 Ivan Santaromita | 2014, 2015 Vincenzo Nibali | 2016 Giacomo Nizzolo

Meissen porcelain

Meissen porcelain or Meissen china is the first European hard-paste porcelain that was developed from 1708 by Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus. After his death that October, Johann Friedrich Böttger, continued his work and brought porcelain to the market. The production of porcelain at Meissen, near Dresden, started in 1710 and attracted artists and artisans to establish one of the most famous porcelain manufacturers, still in business today as Staatliche Porzellan-Manufaktur Meissen GmbH. Its signature logo, the crossed swords, was introduced in 1720 to protect its production; the mark of the crossed swords is one of the oldest trademarks in existence. It dominated the style of European porcelain until 1756.

The Chinese had mastered the production of porcelain long before the west became aware of it, and by the seventeenth century oriental porcelain had become a valuable export commodity in the China trade. Mostly provided by the Dutch East India Company, porcelain from China and Japan represented wealth, importance, and refined taste in Europe, while local attempts to produce porcelain, such as the brief experiment that produced “Medici porcelain” had met with failure top glass water bottles.

At the beginning of the eighteenth century Johann Friedrich Böttger pretended he had solved the dream of the alchemists, to produce gold from worthless materials. When King Augustus II of Poland heard of it, he kept him in protective custody and requested him to produce gold. For years Johann Friedrich Böttger was unsuccessful in this effort. At the same time, Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, a mathematician and scientist, experimented with the manufacture of glass, trying to make porcelain as well. Tschirnhaus supervised Böttger and by 1707 Böttger reluctantly started to help in the experiments by Tschirnhaus. When Tschirnhaus suddenly died, the recipe apparently was handed over to Böttger, who within one week announced to the King that he could make porcelain. Böttger refined the formula and with some Dutch co-workers, experienced in firing and painting tiles, the stage was set for the manufacturing of porcelain. In 1709, the King established the Royal-Polish and Electoral-Saxon Porcelain Manufactory (Königlich-Polnische und Kurfürstlich-Sächsische Porzellan-Manufaktur), placed Böttger’s laboratory at Albrechtsburg castle in Meissen and production started officially in 1710.

The first type of porcelain produced by Böttger was a refined and extremely hard red stoneware known in Germany as Böttgersteinzeug. It retained very crisp definition in its mold-cast applied details, on bodies that could be polished to a gloss before firing. Models were derived from Baroque silver shapes and Chinese ceramic examples. Meissen’s production of a hard paste white porcelain that could be glazed and painted soon followed, and wares were put on the market in 1713.

Böttger’s experimental wares rapidly gained quality but never achieved successful painted and fired decor. The first successful ornaments were gold decorations applied upon the fired body and finely engraved before they received a second firing at a lower temperature. Multicolor enamelled painting was introduced by Johann Gregorius Höroldt in 1723, with an increasingly broad palette of colors that marked the beginning of the classic phase of Meissen porcelain. His enamel paints are still the basis for ceramic paints today. Initially paintings often imitated oriental patterns. The signature underglaze “Meissen Blue” was introduced by Friedrich August Köttig. Soon minutely detailed landscapes and port scenes, animals, flowers, galante courtly scenes and chinoiseries— fanciful Chinese-inspired decorations— were to be found on Meissen porcelain. The Kakiemon vases and tea wares of kilns in Arita, Japan were imitated as Indianische Blume (“Flowers of the Indies”). Paintings by Watteau were copied. Wares were also sold in solid glazed colors, to be enamelled in private workshops (Hausmalerei) and independently retailed. The support of Augustus’ patronage attracted to Meissen some of the finest painters and modelers of Europe as staff artists.

The Albrechtsburg was utilized to protect the secrets of the manufacture of the white gold. As a further precaution, very few workers knew the special secret (arcanum) of how to make porcelain, and then perhaps only part of the process. Thus, for a few years, Meissen retained its monopoly on the production of hard-paste porcelain in Europe. By 1717, however, a competing production was set up at Vienna, as Samuel Stöltzel sold the secret recipe, which involved the use of kaolin, also known as china clay. By 1760 about thirty porcelain manufacturers were operating in Europe, most of them, however, producing frit based soft-paste porcelain.

In order to identify the original Meissen products, Meissen developed markings that initially were painted on, but were soon fired in underglaze blue. Early markings such as AR (Augustus Rex, the monogram of the King), K.P.M. (Königliche Porzellan-Manufaktur), M.P.M. (Meissener Porzellan-Manufaktur), and K.P.F. (“Königliche Porzellan-Fabrik) were eventually replaced by the crossed swords logo, based on the arms of the Elector of Saxony as Arch-Marshal of the Holy Roman Empire. Introduced in 1720, the logo was used consistently after 1731 by official decree. Variations in the logo allow approximate dating of the wares.

German luxury watchmaker Glashutte Original produces a limited number of watches with hand-painted Meissen porcelain dials featuring the crossed swords logo.

Augustus II charged first Johann Jakob Irminger with the design of new vessels. In 1720 Johann Gregorius Höroldt became the director and introduced brilliant colors which made Meissen porcelain famous. The next sculptor, Johann Jakob Kirchner, was the first to make large-scale statues and figurines, especially of Baroque saints. His assistant was Johann Joachim Kaendler; in 1733 Kirchner resigned, and Kaendler took over as chief “modelmaster”. He became the most famous of the Meissen sculptors. Under his direction Meissen produced the series of small figurines, often depicting scenes of gallantry, which brought out the best of the new material. His menagerie of large-scale animals, left in the white, are some of the high points of European porcelain manufacture. His work resulted in the production of exquisite figurines in the rococo style that influenced porcelain making in all of Europe. Supported by assistants like Johann Friedrich Eberlein and Peter Reinecke, he worked until his death in 1775.

In 1756, during the Seven Years’ War, Prussian troops occupied Meissen, giving Frederick II of Prussia the opportunity to relocate some of the artisans to establish the Königliche Porzellan Manufaktur Berlin. With the changing tastes of the neoclassical period and the rise of Sèvres porcelain in the 1760s, Meissen had to readjust its production, and in the reorganization from 1763, C.W.E. Dietrich of the Dresden Academy became artistic director and Michel-Victor Acier from France became the modelmaster. The practice of impressing numerals that correspond to moulds in the inventory books began in 1763. Sèvres styles and ventures into Neoclassicism, such as matte bisque wares that had the effect of white marble, marked the manufactory’s output under Count Camillo Marcolini, from 1774.

In the nineteenth century Ernst August Leuteritz modernized many of the rococo figurines, and reissued them, creating a “Second Rococo” characterized by lacework details (made from actual lace dipped in slip and fired) and applied flowers; English collectors used the term Dresden porcelain to describe these wares, especially the somewhat simpering and coy figurines.

Under Erich Hösel, who became head of the modelling department in 1903, old styles were revived and reinterpreted. Hösel also restored eighteenth century models. Some appealing work in the Art Nouveau style was produced, but Meissen’s mainstay continued to be the constant production of revived eighteenth-century models.

After 1933, the artistic freedom of the artists became restricted by the State of Saxony in accordance with the contemporary indoctrination process in Germany. Some artists (i.e. Ernst Barlach) who had contributed to progressive Meissen during the Weimar period were banned.

After World War II and under Communist rule, the manufactory that had always catered to the rich and wealthy had some difficulty to find its way. The danger was that Meissen would become a factory merely producing for the masses. It was not until 1969, when Karl Petermann became the director football shirts vintage, that Meissen went back to focus on its old traditions and was also allowed a freer artistic expression.

Porcelain figurines, such as Dresden shepherdesses, have been referred to in popular culture, books (such as Dresden Shepherdess by Christine Courtney) and in a quotation used by Air Chief Marshal Arthur (“Bomber”) Harris defending the Bombing of Dresden in World War II that Churchill had described as mere acts of terror and wanton destruction.

Böttger early foresaw the production of tableware, and the first services were made in the 1720s. Initial services were plain, but Kaendler soon introduced matching decorations. Kaendler also produced the 1745 “New Cutout” pattern, characterized by a wavy edge cut.

The famous Swan Service (Schwanenservice) was made in 1737-43, for the manufactory’s director, Count Heinrich von Brühl; It eventually numbered more than a thousand pieces. At the end of World War II, the pieces of the Swan Service were scattered amongst collectors and museums. Yet, with the moulds still available, the pattern continues to be made today.

The Blue Onion pattern has been in production for close to three centuries. It was basically designed by Höroldt in 1739 and is probably inspired by a Chinese bowl from the Kangxi period. Widely popular, the pattern has been copied extensively by over sixty companies; some of those competitors have even used the word Meissen as a marking. But the pattern became so popular and widespread that the German Supreme Court in 1926 ruled that the term Meissen Zwiebelmuster (“Meissen Onion Pattern”, only in English have the pomegranates depicted ever been likened to onions. A more precise term would have been “Meissen Hyacinth Pattern”) was in the public domain.

A series of “Court Dragon” and “Red Dragon” tableware patterns features Chinese dragons, generally in underglaze red with gilt details flying around the rim of the plate and with a medallion in the center of the cavetto. A version of this pattern was used in Hitler’s Kehlsteinhaus retreat.

Other popular patterns still in production include the Purple Rose pattern and the Vine-leaf pattern

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At the beginning the Meissen manufactory was owned by the King of Saxony; by 1830 it came to belong to the State of Saxony. After World War II, most of the equipment was sent to the Soviet Union as part of war reparations. However, already by 1946, the workers using traditional methods and the kilns that had not been dismantled were able to resume production. The company became a Soviet Joint Stock Company in Germany. Almost all of the production was sent to the Soviet Union, a crucial step that kept the artisan community alive. After the establishment of the German Democratic Republic, the company was handed over to German ownership in 1950 and became a people-owned company reusable juice bottles. Meissen Porzellan turned out to be one of the few profitable companies in the economically troubled East German system, earning much needed foreign currency. After the German reunification in 1990, the company was restored to the State of Saxony which is the sole owner. While its products are expensive, the high quality and artistic value make Meissen porcelain very desirable by collectors and connoisseurs.

The rarity and expense of Meissen porcelain meant that originally it could only be bought by the upper classes. Meissen took orders from the elites of Russia, France, England and other European countries. The European wealthy accumulated vast collections and when a wealthy class emerged in the United States people like the Vanderbilts started their own collections. Many of these collections then found their way into the world’s great museums.

A Meissen porcelain chocolate pot, cover and stand, dated c.1780, are among the wedding gifts of Queen Elizabeth II.

Autumn and Summer Porcelain Urns representing the Seasons, Model 1065, Circa 1880.

Teapot, Circa 1724-25, Walters Art Museum

Le Marquis, from the Cris de Paris series, Circa 1757, Private Collection.

Count Bruhl’s Tailor on a Goat Porcelain Figure, Model 107, Circa 1880.

Dancing Harlequine, from the Duke of Weissenfels series, Circa 1747, Private Collection.

Figurines by Jacob Ungerer: Gardener Girl with Dog, Goose Girl, Lady with Cat, 1902.

Hard-porcelain plate with Chinese dragons, Circa 1734, Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris.

Produced around 1818 in the Wedgwood style, this allowed the Meissen company to compete with its English counterparts, Birmingham Museum of Art.

Ebonized vitrine featuring hand painted Meissen porcelain mounts, Circa 1870.

Rococo Porcelain 12-Light Chandelier, Circa 1900.

Candelabrum for the Aleksander Józef Sułkowski service by Johann Joachim Kaendler, Circa 1736, Dallas Museum of Art

Clock with birds by Johann Joachim Kaendler,Circa 1746

Chimney garniture of clock and candelabra, 19th century

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